Early in the morning (Brigham Young’s forty‑sixth birthday) Wilford Woodruff visited the company dentist, who tried to pull his tooth. The tooth broke off and the root was left in his jaw, causing much pain.
The pioneers traveled five and a half miles and halted for the noon rest across the river from the ruins of an old trading post which still had a few chimneys standing. The pioneers turned their horses loose to feed in a luxurianty grassy ravine.
In the afternoon they traveled six and a half miles and came to a point across from Fort Platte, a vacant fort crumbling into ruins. Fort Laramie could also be seen on the north bank of Laramie Fork, about two miles to the south. The pioneer company decided to establish the camp at 5:45 in the form of a V, on the bank of the North Platte.
Soon, two men came from the fort and were seen across the river. “Revenue Cutter” was launched with Luke S. Johnson, John Brown, Joseph Matthews and Porter Rockwell. With great joy, they learned that the two men were Robert Crow and his son‑in‑law, George W. Therlkill, two of the Mississippi company of Saints who spent the winter at Pueblo with the sick detachments of the Mormon Battalion.1
The two men were brought back across the river to meet with Brigham Young. They reported that they had been at Fort Laramie since May 16. They also reported that the detachments of the Mormon Battalion would shortly receive their pay and planned to leave Pueblo about the first of June.2
William Clayton wrote: “It caused us much joy to meet with brethren in this wild region of country and also because we should have some news from the brethren in the army.” Wilford Woodruff added: “No one can imagine the joy of friends on meeting each other under such circumstances away from the abodes of white men where they are only visited by savages.”
Brother Crow and Brother Therlkill shared sad news that Melcher Oyler, Arnold Stevens, James Scott, and Mervin Blanchard had died since John Tippets and Thomas Woolsey had left Pueblo during the winter to return to Winter Quarters. They also said that Solomon Tindall was near death. Most of the other men were doing well and had regained their health during the winter. The two men had no news from the rest of the Mormon Battalion in California. They relayed news that three traders from the mountains had arrived at Fort Laramie six days earlier. The traders’ animals had nearly starved to death because of lack of feed and there had been up to two feet of snow at the Sweetwater River more than 150 miles to the west. After giving their report, Brothers Crow and Therlkill returned to their families at the fort.
William Clayton calculated that they were 543 1/4 miles from Winter Quarters. They had made the journey to Fort Laramie in seven weeks. “We have arrived so far on our journey without accident except the loss of two horses by Indians and two killed. We have been prosperous on our journey, the camp are all in better health than when we left Winter Quarters and we see daily that the Lord blesses us and directs the movements of this camp as seemeth Him good and as is for our good and prosperity.”
In the middle of the camp, in a large ash tree, was the bundled body of an Indian baby. It was tied between the two highest limbs of the treed. The bark was peeled off the tree below to prevent wolves from getting up.
Porter Rockwell visited Fort Laramie, then came back and told the brethren that there were eighteen men with their families living there. They were mostly Frenchmen. It was learned that about three weeks earlier, a larger number of Crow Indians had come to the Fort in broad daylight and stolen many horses. Brigham Young called all the captains together to give them instructions and to see that two men from each company of ten stand on guard while they were camping at this location while they made arrangements to cross the river. A crossing at this point was needed because the Black Hills ahead made it impossible for them to continue their journey on the north side of the North Platte. He suggested that they leave most of their plows at the fort and that they should do their blacksmithing to mend their wagons as soon as possible. James Case, Shadrach Roundy,3 and Seth Taft4 were appointed to overhaul and select the plows to be taken ahead.
Eliza R. Snow wrote: “This is truly a glorious time with the mothers & daughters in Zion altho’ thrust out from the land of our forefathers & from the endearments of civiliz’d life.” A great spiritual meeting was held during the evening at Lyman Leonard’s home. Brother Leonard spoke about the evils in the American government and contrasted it with the happiness of the Saints. Sister Snow said, “Language cannot describe the scene.”
Lucy Elvira Holmes, age one year, died. She was the daughter of Jonathan H. and Elvira Cowles Holmes.
Robert S. Bliss wrote: “June 1st 1847 ushers in another Summer 1 month & 1/2 more and we bid good by to Unkle Sam having it to say ‘You are the most exact Unkle we ever had.’”
Watson, ed., The Orson Pratt Journals, 409; Our Pioneer Heritage, 2:432; William Clayton’s Journal, 205‑08; Excerpts from the Hitherto Unpublished Journal of Horace K. Whitney, Improvement Era, June, 1947, 371; “Erastus Snow Journal Excerpts,” Improvement Era 15:54‑55; Kenney, ed., Wilford Woodruff’s Journal, 3:192‑93; The Personal Writings of Eliza Roxcy Snow, 176; “The Journal of Robert S. Bliss,” Utah Historical Quarterly, 4:94
The Twelve and others crossed the river and visited the deserted Fort Platte. It was 144 by 132 feet, with 30 rooms inside which had been burned. The Oregon Trail ran right by the fort.
The brethren next went to Fort Laramie (also called Fort John) which was occupied by French and Indians. James Bordeaux was the manager of the fort, including more than thirty‑eight men and their families, associated with the American Fur Company. Twenty of the men were currently away on business. Many of the men were married to Sioux Indian women.
Mr. Bordeaux invited the brethren into his sitting room, up a flight of stairs. Appleton Harmon recorded: “He invited us into a room upstairs which looked very much like a bar room of an Eastern hotel. It was ornamented with several drawings, portraits. A long desk, a settee, and some chairs constituted the principal furniture of the room.”
Bordeaux shared with them information about the route ahead and agreed to rent to the pioneers a flatboat for fifteen dollars to ferry over all the wagons. He said there were buffalo two days ahead and there were also grizzly bears. He was expecting some Oregon emigrants to arrive soon. The next fort along the route would be Fort Bridger, over the mountains.
Bordeaux told them that Governor Lilburn Boggs, the former governor of Missouri, had passed by this way the previous year. He had tried to prejudice the men in the fort against the Mormons, telling them to make sure they watched their horses, because the Mormons would try to steal them. But the Boggs company had behaved terribly, and Bordeaux told him that the Mormons could not be any worse than his company was.
After their visit with Bordeaux, the brethren visited the trading post and found the provisions to be very expensive. All the goods had been brought in from other locations. It was said that until recently there had not been rain at the fort for two years.
The brethren boarded the flatboat, floated down the river, and returned to the pioneer camp at noon. They saw a bald eagle perched on top of a stump. Orson Pratt measured the river at the camp to be 108 yards wide and it flowed about three miles per hour.
During the day, the rest of the camp was very busy. They made a coal pit within the circle of wagons and set up three portable blacksmith shops for shoeing horses and repairing wagons. Others worked at digging at the river bank to prepare a place to ferry over the wagons. John Higbee and others went fishing and caught 60‑70 fish with a net. They caught all kinds of fish including carp, catfish, salmon, pike, and others.
After dinner, the Twelve met in council and decided that Amasa Lyman, Roswell Stevens, John Tippets, and Thomas Woosley should travel to Pueblo to take instructions to the detachment of the battalion. The soldiers were to come and follow the pioneer company over the mountains. Brigham Young dictated a letter to the soldiers that included:
If experience has not already taught you, we would say, keep a sharp lookout for buffalo, Indian and bears, all of which may be met and endanger the life and liberty of men, women and children, beasts and property. Be wise, and watch as well as pray continually, and having done all you possibly can, and exercised all the skill, wisdom and prudence and care and strength that you possess, should you be overtaken with accidents or losses of any kind, take the spoil thereof patiently and cheerfully, and murmur not for Christ’s sake. Let the unity of the Spirit and brotherly love abide in every heart, be made manifest in every action and reciprocated by every word, and our blessings, and the blessings of our Heavenly Father shall abide with you continually and you shall prosper.
A son, John Taylor Brown, was born to Captain James Brown and his wife Eunice Reaser Brown.
It was a rainy day at Winter Quarters. Mary Richards was visited by the Robert Burton family, whom she had stayed for several weeks during the winter on the Nishnabotna River, in Missouri.
John D. Lee visited the store in Austin to buy provisions. He returned to Hunsacker’s ferry to spend the night with the family of Samuel B. Frost. He found murmuring in the family, especially from Sister Rebecca Frost. He reasoned with them and preached to them until midnight.
Two ships were in the port, loading up hides to be shipped back to the states. Robert Bliss was impressed by the oats which grew spontaneously. He believed the oats were as fine as any raised with great labor in the east.
The detachment camped in San Joaquin Valley.
James R. Clark, Messages of the First Presidency, 1:322; Kenney, ed., Wilford Woodruff’s Journal, 3:194; “Erastus Snow Journal Excerpts,” Improvement Era 15:55; Appleton Milo Harmon Goes West, 27; Bagley, ed., The Pioneer Camp of the Saints, 178; Ward, ed., Winter Quarters, 145; Kelly, ed., Journals of John D. Lee, 173; “The Journal of Robert S. Bliss,” Utah Historical Quarterly, 4:94; “The Journal of Nathaniel V. Jones,” Utah Historical Quarterly, 4:18
During the cold morning, the pioneers started to ferry the wagons across the North Platte River. The wind blew strongly upriver, which made the crossing easier. A wagon could be ferried over in about fifteen minutes. The blacksmiths continued their hard work repairing wagons and shoeing horses. They set up their shops in the deserted Fort Platte. Charles Barnum did some washing for Wilford Woodruff. It was the first time Elder Woodruff had washed his clothes since leaving Winter Quarters.
Albert P. Rockwood wrote about an unusual form of amusement: “During this morning, many of the brethren were engaged in gathering beads from the ant hill in the vicinity. The ants gather small gravel to butify their habitat or cities and . . . they gather many beads of various colors which have been strewed by the Indians or otherwise.”
At 11:15 a.m., Amasa Lyman, Roswell Stevens, John Tippets, and Thomas Woolsey started their journey toward Pueblo to meet the men and families of the battalion sick detachments. They would carry 349 letters to the soldiers. Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, Willard Richards, and Orson Pratt rode with them as far as Laramie Fork. The men sat down on a large fallen tree and listened to President Young issue instructions. There were worries that Captain James Brown was leading the battalion members to Santa Fe, rather than to the north. Firm instructions were given that the battalion men must not follow Captain Brown to Mexico. Rather, they should follow the pioneers over the mountains. If the officers would not support this plan, Amasa Lyman would need to have those officers replaced by men who would support this plan. If the main companies of the battalion were still at Santa Fe, they should also be retrieved and be brought back. They knelt down, dedicated their mission to the Lord, and blessed each man.5
Porter Rockwell, Thomas Brown, Joseph Matthews, and John Brown went ahead on horseback to scout the road for the pioneer company.
At 1:40 p.m., a loud thunderstorm rolled through. Rain fell for two hours. During the storm, the horses were secured inside the deserted Fort Platte on the south side of the river. After the storm, the wagon crossings continued. They were able to get a wagon across in eleven minutes. At 7 p.m., again the work had to stop because of another storm, leaving about seventeen wagons on the other side, unable to cross.
Four men had been spotted the previous evening arriving at Fort Laramie on pack horses. They came from the fort to visit the brethren, and informed the pioneers that they were from St. Joseph, Missouri. They reported that twenty wagons were about three miles to the east. Their company had traveled from Missouri in only seventeen days and had passed about 600‑700 wagons during their journey west. They estimated that there would be about two thousand wagons leaving the states this season, heading for Oregon and California. A company would probably arrive at Fort Laramie on each of the next three days.
Appleton Harmon and others visited a French/Sioux burial. He recorded: “They had set four forks into the ground about seven feet high and placed poles across, and made a scaffold on which the corpses were deposited, wrapped in a skin, a pillow under each head ornamented with beads.” Wilford Woodruff wrote: “The French were buried in the ground, strong pickets around, with a cross at the head being Catholics.”
Elder Lyman O. Littlefield continued his journey to his mission in England. He wrote:
The scenery along the Ohio River in many places was very fine. Cincinnati is certainly a very tidy place, with streets clean and neat. We left Cincinnati June 3rd. At the junction of the Erie and Cleveland canals we parted company with Brother Campbell, daughter and sister Polly Thompson. They followed up the Erie canal and went up the Cleveland. We had to pack our trunks three‑fourths of a mile before we could find a tavern, which gave us a relish for our bed.
The weather was pleasant. Mary Richards stewed some apples, picked some gooseberries, and made some pies. She visited friends who were preparing to leave with the next pioneer company. Four Omaha Indians came near Winter Quarters and presented a letter from Big Elk, stating that he was going out against the Pawnees and wanted to know if and when he could meet with brethren and receive permission to enter the city. In the evening, a problem with the police guard arose. A meeting was called by Marshal Horace S. Eldredge at Isaac Morley’s shop. The marshal wanted to induce the police to reduce their wages. They firmly refused. Brother Eldredge then accused the police of not doing their duty. Hosea Stout told him that the police matters were none of his business. While they were having a heated discussion, Elders Orson Hyde, Parley P. Pratt, and John Taylor arrived. Hosea Stout immediately stopped talking and the brethren told him to continue. But the matter was dropped and the brethren had come to ask about some property which had been stolen on the other side of the river. Nothing was known about the property.
A daughter, Ann Elizabeth Riter, was born to Levi E. and Rebecca Dilworth Riter.
The Catholics celebrated Saint Mary’s birthday. Henry Standage recorded:
The inhabitants of [Los Angeles] have been sweeping the public square fro 2 days past, and this morning they erected 4 stages, one in each corner of the square, also erecting an altar at each place, making it of green bushes, and decorated with roses, strips of white cloth and very handsome serape or a kind of outside covering thrown around the man while on horseback, were thrown on the ground.
The mass started at 10 a.m. Colonel Stevenson ordered that one of the cannons be brought to the square to show the Mexicans that they would be protected during their celebration. After the mass, the priest came out to the square to perform certain rites at each of the altars. A band belonging to the New York Volunteers played while a procession marched from corner to corner. All the people continuously showered roses down on the priest’s head. The cannon fired at intervals as the procession moved from place to place.
Diary of Howard Egan, Pioneering the West, 63‑4; Appleton Milo Harmon Goes West, 28; Watson, ed., The Orson Pratt Journals, 417; “Excerpts from the Hitherto Unpublished Journal of Horace K. Whitney,” Improvement Era, June, 1947, 407; Kenney, ed., Wilford Woodruff’s Journal, 3:194‑95; Bagley, ed., The Pioneer Camp of the Saints, 178‑79; “Lyman Littlefield Reminiscences (1888),” 191‑92; Journal of Henry Standage in Golder, The March of the Mormon Battalion, 224; The Personal Writings of Eliza Roxcy Snow, 176; Ward, ed., Winter Quarters, 145; “Albert P. Rockwood Journal,” typescript, BYU, 48
It was a clear, pleasant morning. The snow‑capped Laramie Peak could be seen clearly in the distance. The ferrying of wagons started early, at 4:30 a.m. The last of the wagons were brought over by 8:00 a.m. Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, and others went up to Fort Laramie for one more visit. They brought back good reports from traders about Bear River Valley. It was described as well‑timbered, with plenty of grass, and mild winters. There were many fish in the streams. Wilford Woodruff recorded: “I conversed with a mountaineer who had wintered at the great Basin of the Salt and Utah Lakes & he recommends the country very highly for a healthy, fertile Country, the lakes and streams abounding with trout and other fish, a good supply of sugar maple & other timber &c.”
Levi Jackman described the Fort Laramie: “The walls are made of adobes with door attached to the walls on the inside and one two stories high. A row of houses also runs through the center of the fort.”
Porter Rockwell traded a horse with James Bordeaux for two cows and calves, one heifer, two pairs of moccasin shoes, and two lariats. John Pack traded a lame horse for three robes. Luke S. Johnson provided his dental services to several people in the fort in exchange for some moccasins and skins. Many letters were left behind for loved‑ones back at Winter Quarters. They would be sent back to Peter Sarpy at Trader’s Point and then delivered to Winter Quarters.6
Appleton Harmon and Albert P. Rockwood used a yoke of oxen to tow the ferry boat back up to the fort. Brother Rockwood paid the fifteen-dollar fee, seven in cash, one dollar’s worth of potatoes, and Robert Crow of the Mississippi Saints paid the other seven dollars. Mr. Bordeaux was very pleased to see that the Saints settled up with him. He remarked that he had never had a group of people pass Fort Laramie who first made sure they had settled up with him. Albert P. Rockwood wrote: “The keeper of the boat said to me that this was the most gentlemen like company that had ever visited the establishment. Other companies took liberties to go in all and every bit of the fort with leave where as our people asked to examine and look. . . . Every man of us had acted the part of a gentleman which was not practised by other companies.”
At 11:30, the three families from the Mississippi Saints came from the fort and took their place in the pioneer company. The seventeen new members of the camp were: Robert Crow, Elizabeth Crow, Benjamin B. Crow, Harriet Crow, Elizabeth Jane Crow, John McHenry Crow, Walter H. Crow, George W. Therlkill, Matills Jane Therlkill, Milton Howard Therlkill, James William Therlkill, William Parker Crow, Isa Vinda Exene Crow, Ira Minda Almarene Crow, Archibald Little, James Chesney and Lewis B. Myers. This increased the size of the pioneer camp to 161 (148 men, eight women, and five children). Certainly the three sisters traveling in the pioneer company were delighted to welcome five new sisters7 and three children. Lewis B. Myers was a valuable addition to the pioneer company because he had in years past traveled in the rocky mountains. The Mississippi Saints brought five wagons, one cart, eleven horses, twenty‑four oxen, twenty‑two cows, three bulls, and seven calves. This brought the camp totals to ninety‑six horses, fifty‑one mules, ninety oxen, forty‑three cows, nine calves, three bulls, sixteen chickens, sixteen dogs, seventy‑nine wagons, and one cart.
William Clayton put up a sign board at the ferry crossing that read: “Winter Quarters, 561 1/4 miles. 227 1/2 miles from the Junction of the Platte. 142 1/4 miles from Ash Hollow. 70 1/4 miles from Chimney Rock. 50 1/2 miles from Scotts Bluff”
Harriet Young spent the morning baking some bread and pies and frying some cakes.
At noon, the pioneers again started their journey, now on the south side of the North Platte River. After three miles, at 1:20, they halted to feed the cattle. Horace K. Whitney wrote: “At this place the grass was the most luxuriant that we have seen for a long time ‑‑ here to our right, a short distance, the river winding in a serpentine direction, glides gracefully by, while immediately to our left are large crags & masses of rock, as it were, suspended over our heads.”
As the group traveled, they noticed Archibald Little, a newcomer and nonmember with the Mississippi group, whipping his oxen very badly. Brigham Young and others went to help him, but he treated them with contempt and continued to whip his animals. President Young commented that there had been more abuse of cattle in those few minutes than by all the brethren since they left Winter Quarters. President Young had Albert P. Rockwood notify Robert Crow that he would not allow such abuse in the camp. Robert Crow was to notify Achibald Little that if he did not reform from this moment, he must leave the camp. It was explained to Brother Crow that even nonmembers in the pioneer company had to live by the camp rules. Brother Crow firmly agreed and received the order well.
The journey continued at 2:30. About eight miles from Fort Laramie, they descended a very steep hill [Mexican Hill] and had to lock the wheels on the wagons for the first time. At 5:30 the night’s camp was established. Soon a heavy thunder shower rolled through. Thomas Bullock wrote: “We saw two perfect rainbows in the heavens and an Eagle flying in the Air.”
The weather was very warm. Mary Richards traveled around the city with the Burtons. “We went into store & traded, afterwards we went to the Mill and the Miller took & shewed us through every department of the same, it was then in Motion. We were well pleased with our visit there.”
A son, Lewis Oviatt, was born to Ira A. and Ruth Bennett Oviatt.8
The Pueblo detachment was having trouble with mad wild dogs. A man had recently died because of a bite. Colonel Stevenson asked some men from the battalion to go and kill all of the stray dogs that they could find.
A large drove of horses was brought into town to sell to the battalion.
Diary of Howard Egan, Pioneering the West, 64‑65; Appleton Milo Harmon Goes West, 28; “Excerpts from the Hitherto Unpublished Journal of Horace K. Whitney,” Improvement Era, June, 1947, 407; Watson ed., Manuscript History of Brigham Young, 557; Kenney, ed., Wilford Woodruff’s Journal, 3:196; Bagley, ed., The Pioneer Camp of the Saints, 179‑81; “Levi Jackman Autobiography,” typescript, BYU, 34; Ward, ed., Winter Quarters, 146; Brooks, ed., On the Mormon Frontier, 1:258‑59; “The Journal of Robert S. Bliss,” Utah Historical Quarterly, 4:94; Tyler, A Concise History of the Mormon Battalion, 290; “Diary of Lorenzo Dow Young,” Utah Historical Quarterly, 14:161; “Albert P. Rockwood Journal,” typescript, BYU, 49
The company was delayed in the morning because of some missing oxen. After they were found, the pioneers traveled up and down hills. Appleton Harmon wrote that they “mounted the bluff in a gradual winding pass and then down a steep hill making one‑half a mile over, then up a bed of a stream that is now dry and from all appearance has long since ceased to pay its tribute to the North Fork.” Near the bottom of the hill, Robert Crow’s wagon tipped over, but there was no damage. William Clayton put up a guide board every ten miles.
They soon reached the intersection of two roads from Fort Laramie, where there was a warm spring. They rested the animals and some men went to see the spring. It bubbled out of the bluff, but was not very hot. Orson Pratt recorded: “A short distance from this spring, and on the opposite side, we saw an old lime kiln, where probably lime had been procured for the uses of the Fort.”
Wilford Woodruff penned: “The bluffs, peaks & hills begin to be more lofty as we get unto the hills. We are beginning to come to an elk, bear & mountain sheep country. We saw their signs to day.” While they were still resting, a company of Missouri emigrants with eleven wagons caught up and passed them. They said that two more companies arrived at Fort Laramie during the morning and three other companies were within twenty miles of Laramie. This company had traveled all the way from the fort on this day. They had taken the southern road from Fort Laramie which turned out to be a shorter and better road.
The pioneers traveled ten and a half miles in the afternoon and camped by a pure stream of water with good feed. The Missouri company camped a quarter mile behind on the same stream. Traveling with them, were four men from Fort Laramie who were heading for Vancouver Island to obtain sea shells. Another thunder shower came through in the evening.
It was another historic day in Winter Quarters. Pioneers who would be part of the second company of Saints left the city to start the trek west, to follow the lead company to the mountains. Those who started the journey included: Parley P. Pratt, Perrigrine Sessions, and Jesse W. Crosby. Parley P. Pratt later recorded: “I loaded my goods and family into my wagons, and, obtaining a few more cattle, started for the Rocky Mountains; or rather the Elk Horn River, where we expected to form a rendezvous, and establish a ferry, and wait the arrival of others, and the organization of companies for the purpose of mutual safety in travelling.” Jesse Crosby left with a company of fifty wagons.
Patty Sessions wrote: “We start for the mountains and leave Winter Quarters for the mountains or a resting place. Ten years to day since we left our home and friends in Maine. We now leave many good friends here and I hope they will soon follow on to us. I drive one four ox team.”
George Whitaker described the required preparations:
We had to get so many pounds of flour for each individual, 350 pounds for each person, if not, we were not allowed to go. There were men appointed to inspect each wagon to see if we had the requisite quantity. We knew that we were going into a country where we could not buy any. We had to take enough to last us fifteen months, or until we could raise it. We had to take our seed grain, farming implements, cooking utensils, and such things that we could not do without. Some would take a few chickens fastened on behind the wagons, and some would take a pig. We had our wagons all loaded up and inspected and pronounced all right.
Mary Richards visited some new stores that had recently opened. She bought a tea bottle and a water pail. From Brother Abel Lamb, she bought a wash board. Then she went to collect five dollars of groceries that had been brought for her from St. Louis.
A party of eighty Omaha Indians came to Winter Quarters and Hosea Stout was asked to meet with them six miles below the city. The chiefs were introduced to Hosea Stout, whom they recognized as a war chief or captain. They all came to shake his hand. Brother Stout escorted the Indian party into town and they camped on the first ridge west of the city. A council meeting was held with them in the evening. Big Elk confirmed everything that Young Elk had told the Saints during his visit on May 25. The meeting went well and good feelings existed between the two parties. Some beef was given to the Indians for supper. A strong guard was raised for the evening to guard the city.
John D. Lee returned from Missouri and arrived at the ferry crossing. He found sixty wagons waiting to cross over to Winter Quarters. Many families were planning to be part of the large second company of pioneers.
The sick detachments of the Mormon Battalion and the rest of the Mississippi Saints spent the day crossing the South Platte River near present‑day Greeley, Colorado. The river was about three to four feet deep, making the crossing difficult.
Wilford Woodruff’s Journal, 3:196‑97; Autobiography of Parley P. Pratt, 358; Appleton Milo Harmon Goes West, 28‑9; Watson, ed., The Orson Pratt Journals, 418‑19; Diary of Howard Egan, Pioneering the West, 65‑6; William Clayton’s Journal, 216‑18; Ward, ed., Winter Quarters, 146; Brooks, ed., On the Mormon Frontier, 1:259; Kelly, ed., Journals of John D. Lee, 173‑74; Yurtinus, A Ram in the Thicket, 319; The History and Journal of Jesse W. Crosby, typescript, BYU, 33; “Norton Jacob Journal,” typescript, 85; “Albert P. Rockwood Journal,” typescript, BYU, 50; Smart, ed., Mormon Midwife, 84; “Life of George Whitaker, A Pioneer, as written by himself,” in Madsen, Journey to Zion, 85
In the morning, the wagon train from St. Joseph, Missouri, passed by the pioneer camp. Because it was Sunday, the camp of pioneers rested. They were again told to fast until the meetings were over. At 9 a.m., they assembled for a prayer meeting. The speakers were Erastus Snow, Jesse C. Little, and others. The meeting closed at 11 a.m. Appleton Harmon commented: “I believe that the whole camp feel as much of the Spirit of God as ever the same number of men did under similar circumstances. All is peace and union.” William Empey agreed: “I can surely say that God poured out his Spirit upon us and we enjoyed our selves well.”
During the morning they were visited by three or four men on horseback reporting that their company from Missouri was a short distance back. They had camped for the night at the Warm Springs. William Clayton wrote: “Some of these are recognized by the brethren and they [the Missourians] seem a little afraid and not fond of our company.”
At 11:40 a.m. the brethren assembled for a preaching meeting. Orson Pratt asked the camp choir to sing the hymn on page 95, “With all my powers of heart & tongue.” Ezra T. Benson opened with prayer. Just as soon as Orson Pratt started to preach, the rail fell in torrents with thunder and lightning. Brigham Young “jumped up and said every man go home out of the rain.” During the storm, another Oregon-bound company from Missouri came up with nineteen wagons and two carriages. Their guide said water could be found sixteen miles ahead, but no more for fifteen miles after that.
When the weather cleared around 1 p.m., it was thought best to travel six miles during the afternoon in order to shorten Monday’s travel to the next water. At 2:30 p.m., the pioneer camp was on the move. After traveling up the creek four miles, they passed the Oregon company of nineteen wagons. They camped one mile further by a stream of water, called Bitter Creek, where there was plenty of wood. The first emigrant company from Missouri was camped a short distance ahead.
William Clayton recorded: “One of the men in the company of the nineteen wagons told G. A. Smith that he had broken his carriage spring and seemed much troubled to know what to do to get along. He asked George if there was any man in our company who could fix it. George told him there was. After we were camped, Burr Frost set up his forge and welded the spring ready to put on before dark.” Several of the Missouri emigrants came to see the roadometer. They wanted to see the gears inside and looked upon it as a curiosity.
Harriet Young wrote: “Camped for the night in the most beautiful place we have found since we started. I churned and picked a mess of great, eat supper and went to bed.”
In the evening, it learned that a letter could be taken to Samuel Brannan in San Francisco. Willard Richards composed a letter for Brigham Young that included:
By my date you will discover my location, and as there is an emigrating company from the states camped about one‑fourth of a mile back this eve, some of whom, as I understand are destined for San Francisco, I improve a few moments to write to you. . . . This camp which left Winter Quarters between the 6th and 14th of April, consists of something less than 200 men ‑‑ two men to a wagon, accompanied by two‑thirds of the council and men in pursuit of a location for themselves and friends. We left upwards of 4,000 inhabitants at Winter Quarters and expect a large company which have since started, and are now en route, among whom will be as many of the families of the Battalion as can be fitted out. If any of the Battalion are with you or at your place, and want to find their families, they will do well to take the road to the States, via the south bank of Salt Lake, Ft. Bridger, South Pass, etc. and watch the path or any turn of the road till they find this camp. . . . The camp will not go to the west coast or to your place at present; we have not the means. Any among you who may choose to come over into the Great Basin or meet the camp, are at liberty to do so; and if they are doing well where they are, and choose to stay, it is quite right.
After the Omahas had breakfast, they left Winter Quarters to return home. Hosea Stout escorted them until they were six miles from the city.
John Taylor spoke to the Saints at a Sunday meeting. “He exhorted the Saints to be diligent in doing their duty, and in keeping their sacred covenants and walking uprightly before, and keeping all his righteous commandments.” Elder Taylor explained to the Saints about their authority to lead and the need to change some of the procedures that Brigham Young had set up before he left. “When the Twelve are present they lead. . . . But I tell you Bro. Young never set up stakes that cannot be drawn up according to circumstances. When Elder Hyde is here he is Elder Young. If Bro. Pratt is here he would be Elder Young. If 2 or 3 of the Twelve were here the oldest would preside.”
In the evening an entertaining and thought provoking meeting was held. A Universalian Minister preached from Mark Chapter 15 and 16. After he preached, Benjamin Clapp responded. They each took several turns to respond to each other’s remarks.
Eliza R. Snow was trying to decide if she should leave with the next pioneer company. Sister Peirce had mentioned that she wanted Sister Snow to go with her family, but Brother Peirce was not sure if he had the means to take her with them.
About fifty wagons were camping at Papillion Creek. These families would be part of the second pioneer company. A heavy thundershower beat against the wagons during the night.
Rebecca Mayberry, age eight months, died of lung complaint. She was the daughter of David Y. and Rebecca Mayberry.
After getting some grain ground up at the Winter Quarters mill, John D. Lee returned to Summer Quarters and found everyone doing well.
The men continued to have good success killing many dogs in the Pueblo. The Mexicans had been keeping a huge number of dogs. Horse racing was held by the Mexicans.
Robert S. Bliss wrote: “Rode to the coast to examine a bed of coal. Saw a variety of sea animals & objects interesting to me.”
Diary of Howard Egan, Pioneering the West, 66; Appleton Milo Harmon Goes West, 29; “Luke S. Johnson Journal,” typescript, BYU, 11; Bagley, ed., The Pioneer Camp of the Saints, 182‑83; William Clayton’s Journal, 218‑20; Our Pioneer Heritage, 3:480‑81; Kelly, ed., Journals of John D. Lee, 173‑74; Brooks, ed., On the Mormon Frontier, 1:259; Ward, ed., Winter Quarters, 146; The Personal Writings of Eliza Roxcy Snow, 176‑77; Journal of Henry Standage in Golder, The March of the Mormon Battalion, 224; “The Journal of Robert S. Bliss,” Utah Historical Quarterly, 4:95; “Diary of Lorenzo Dow Young,” Utah Historical Quarterly, 14:161; “Journal of William A. Empey,” Annals of Wyoming, 21:131; Pratt, “Parley P. Pratt in Winter Quarters and the Trail West, BYU Studies, 383-84; Smart, ed., Mormon Midwife, 84
The two Missouri emigration companies started out before the pioneer company. Harriet Young commented: “A camp from Missouri came up with us, but seemed in a hurry to get away from us, and we was willing to have them.” Brigham Young bought a cow from the emigrants for a very good price. Willard Richards left behind another letter to Charles C. Rich and the next company in a letter box.
In the morning, the pioneers traveled almost eight miles and spent the noon rest on a small spring with very little water and grass. The roads had been rough and they had been going uphill. While there, a third company from Missouri passed by with 13 wagons, 14 horses, 64 cows, and 43 yoke of oxen. They were from Andrew County, Missouri.
Thomas Bullock recorded: “We then ascended some hills skirted & dotted with Pine Timber; when at the top we had view of a most beautiful country, being in two directions like an immense Park, without any fence, & dotted with Pines. On the other side had a full view of Laramie Peak, covered with Timber & tipt with Snow.” William Clayton described the Black Hills:
From a fair view of the peak I am satisfied that the Black Hills, of which this is a prominent part, are so named from the vast forests of pine trees covering their surface and being of a dark green color within a few miles of them. The pine grows in the most rocky places and abounds on the highest hills, while on the lower bluffs it is sparsely scattered and in the bottom land, which looks rich and good, there are none.
William Clayton continued: “We began to descend and had to lock the wagons in several places. The descent was rendered unpleasant by the many large cobble stones scattered in the road. Many of the brethren threw them out of the road as we went along and the road is much improved. They have also dug down some places and leveled others, which will make the road much better for other companies.”
After descending into a valley, they camped for the night at Horseshoe Creek where there was wonderful feed for the cattle. Wilford Woodruff wrote: “Horseshoe Creek is heavily timbered with cottonwood, ash & willow. It is quite a large stream. I went fishing with a hook & line to see if I could not get some trout but I caught nothing. The Black Hills are a good deal timbered with pine.” The three Missouri companies went on ahead. Another heavy thunderstorm poured rain upon the pioneer camp.
John Brown killed a long‑tailed deer and another hunter killed an antelope. Robert Crow’s hunter, Lewis B. Myers, also killed a deer but was not willing to conform to the camp rules of dividing it among the camp, and instead kept it all for the Mississippi Saints. Brother Crow promised that it they obtained more meat than they could use, they would share it with the rest of the camp. The fact that the Mississippi Saints continued to live by their own company rules was certainly a frustration to the leaders of the pioneer camp. The pioneers were curious to watch Lewis Myers roast the young antlers of the deer and eat them. Some of the Missouri companies killed an antelope, took off the quarters, and left the rest on the ground. John Pack picked it up and brought it along.
Patty Sessions and her family arrived at the Elkhorn.
It rained in the morning and was very muddy in the city. Hosea Stout went around town to collect the police tax from some of those who were preparing to leave with the next company of pioneers. He also asked about the possibility of himself going as captain of the guard.
Henry Standage took his turn at guard duty and was posted at the jail. One of the prisoners, an American, put on an Indian woman’s clothes who had brought him his meal, and went out the door. Private Standage suspected something and discovered the trick. He immediately ordered him back to the jail at bayonet point and requested that the jailer lock him in a more secure room. The jailed man issued many threats and curses against “the Mormon.”
Wilford Woodruff’s Journal, 3:197‑98; “Luke S. Johnson Journal,” typescript, BYU, 11; Diary of Howard Egan, Pioneering the West, 67‑8; Bagley, ed., The Pioneer Camp of the Saints, 184; William Clayton’s Journal, 220‑23; Brooks, ed., On the Mormon Frontier, 1:260; Journal of Henry Standage in Golder, The March of the Mormon Battalion, 224; “Diary of Lorenzo Dow Young,” Utah Historical Quarterly, 14:161; Smart, ed., Mormon Midwife, 84
On this cool morning, the pioneers started their journey at 7:30 a.m. by crossing Horseshoe Creek. For two and a half miles they wound their way through high bluffs and then began to ascend them. This was the worst hill of the journey so far. They had to climb three very steep pitches, which required doubling teams. Wilford Woodruff recorded: “We formed a company of men & went forward of the teams & cleaned the road of stone. We used pick axes, bars, spades, &c. It was a great help to our weak waggons.” From the top of the hill they saw their first buffalo since May 21. They continued on and then had to climb another bluff. Thomas Bullock left behind a buffalo skull message that read: “Pioneers‑‑Double Teams‑‑8 June, 1847, Camp all well. Hail Storm last night fine morning. T Bullock. No accident.”
An accident did occur a little later, which was recorded by Thomas Bullock:
Sister Harriet Crow got on the Wagon tongue to get a drink of Water. As she was jumping down, her coat caught by the Wagon Hammer & she fell to the ground; her husband seized her, pulled her body from under the Wheel, but her coat being still entangled on the Wagon Hammer could not clearly extricate her, before the front Wheel passed over her left thigh & ankle. Fortunately no bones were broken. She was much bruised, had great pain, but before night was considerably easier.
At 11:45, the company halted for the noon rest by a small creek with only a little water.
There was no sign of the two Missouri companies this day. John Higbee had gone ahead hunting and reported that he saw them start out, and “they had such strife one with another in trying to start first they did not stop to milk their cows, & in clearing up their breakfast, they strewed their meal, salt, bacon, short cake, jonney cake, beans & other things upon the ground through their encampment & when we came up 3 wolves were feeding upon the fragments.” Wilford Woodruff wrote “I picked up a pocket knife & spoon left upon the ground.”
At 1:40 p.m., the journey continued. They crossed another creek and ascended another bluff. After five miles, they finally began to descend and crossed Labonte Creek. Elder Woodruff recorded, “When we came over the high hills to day it was so cold it pierced us like winter.” They soon stopped, circled the wagons, established the camp, and built roaring fires.
Three traders came to visit. They were part of a company who had lost their cattle in a snowstorm on the Sweetwater River ahead. They had three wagon loads of pottery and firs from Fort Bridger. Some of the brethren went to visit their camp and the traders told them that mountaineers could ride to Salt Lake from Fort Bridger in two days and that the Utah country was beautiful. Letters were sent back with them to Fort Laramie. Porter Rockwell reported that he had been to the North Platte River which was about four miles away.
Heavy rain fell at 6 p.m. The extra water caused the mill dam to break during the night.
Twins, Hellen Louisa and Horace Alonzo Eldredge, were born to Horace S. and Betsy Chase Eldredge. A daughter, Hannah Grover, was born to Thomas and Hannah Tupper Grover.9
Diary of Howard Egan, Pioneering the West, 68; Appleton Milo Harmon Goes West, 30; Watson, ed., Manuscript History of Brigham Young, 557; Kenney, ed., Wilford Woodruff’s Journal, 3:198‑99; Bagley, ed., The Pioneer Camp of the Saints, 185; Kelly, ed., Journals of John D. Lee, 175
The feed was not good at the campsite, so the pioneers started early, at 5 a.m., and went one mile to a better location near the traders’ camp. Some of the men traded with their company for robes, shirts, pants and other items. At 7 a.m., a company of 40 men and 15 wagons were chosen to travel ahead of the main camp to the river crossing at the Platte River. The traders mentioned that they had left a boat made from buffalo skins hanging in a tree at the river and the brethren were interested in obtaining that boat before the Missouri emigration companies did. This small company would also make preparations for the river crossing ahead by building a raft. They took “Revenue Cutter” with them. The company consisted of all of Robert Crow’s Mississippi families, Aaron Farr, Jackson Redden, John Brown and others.
Letters were left with the traders to take back to the Missouri River. Thomas Bullock wrote a letter to his wife that included: “We are now about 300 miles from Fort Bridger, but where we go, we know not.” He mentioned that he was “up before the sun every morning praying for you & long to clasp you feverently in my arms again.” William Clayton put up another guide board that read: “To Fort John 60 miles.”
Appleton Harmon described the morning journey.
After one and a half hours’ refreshment, we started on traveling over a rough, broken country as before, changing our direction every few minutes to wind around some point or gutter, to pass some creek or confused mass of rocks which lay in fragments, or to avoid some steep that is too rugged for our times. . . . We came to a valley some two miles wide which was somewhat picturesque. Along each side there were high ranges of hills. The soil in the valley and on the sides of the hills is, a major part of it, a dark red, while here upon the sides of these hills and nearer the summit it is white.
Brigham Young and Heber C. Kimball saw what was a curious creature to them. It was a large toad with horns on its head and a tail. Instead of hoping, it crawled like a mouse.
While the main camp was traveling during the morning, they were overtaken by a company of French mountaineers with fifteen pack horses and mules, who had traveled from Santa Fe. They were heading to the Green River, Great Salt Lake, and San Francisco. They informed the brethren that the Mormon Battalion had arrived in California in January. They had seen Captain James Brown recently in Santa Fe obtaining pay for the sick detachments of the battalion. They believed these detachments would be moving on very soon. They mentioned that the Mormons at Pueblo were much dissatisfied and many of them talked about returning to the States to their families.
At the noon stopping point, the ground was covered with crickets which were so numerous that it was impossible to walk without stepping on some. In the afternoon, the pioneers traveled eight miles and camped on A’la’parele (Le Prele) Creek. Some brethren rode ahead on horses and overtook the little lead pioneer group, who were not far behind the Missouri companies. Starling Driggs killed an antelope and a deer.10 Some of the men viewed a river flowing under a mountain causing a natural bridge.
A meeting was held to appoint a time for the next company to start from Winter Quarters to head for the Elkhorn River. Because the mill dam had broken, further grinding would be delayed. Those who had already had their grain ground were asked to divide it with those who would not be able to have it done before they left. Hosea Stout wrote that this “made a great disappointment to many and caused a great stir.”
Mary Richards wrote in a letter to her missionary husband, Samuel:
There is a noble large field plowed and part planted, and the brethren are plowing and planting every day when the weather will admit. They have covenanted not to make short furrows in order for every man to plough his own piece of land, but to commence on one side of the field and plough through to the other, no matter wither it be their own land, or their brethrens, for we are all one family.
A daughter, Sarah Marinda Bates, was born to Ormus E. and Morilla Spink Bates.11
Wagons started to arrive at the Elkhorn River. Men started work to build a raft to cross over the hundreds of wagons that would soon follow. There were some mishaps. As one of the Sessions’ wagons was being taken across, the back wheels slid off into the water. They had to unload everything out of the wagon and then pull it back onto the raft. Nothing was lost or wet. Nicholas Singley was not as lucky. His wagon sunk the raft and fell into the river. They were able to pull the wagon out of the river, but the load had become totally soaked. The grain and meal were later dried out and very little was lost.
Elder Lyman O. Littlefield arrived at Kirtland after walking for many days. His feet were swollen and blistered. He stayed with his father‑in‑law, John Andrews, who were very kind.
Robert S. Bliss started out with others for San Isabel, a fifty to sixty mile journey in the mountains to go buy horses and mules for the journey home. They rode over difficult mountains and after about forty miles camped for the night. During the day they had seen hundreds of horses and mules as they passed a ranch called Cahoe.
The soldiers had to cross the deep Stanislaus River by swimming the animals and carrying their goods across in skins. The men learned that there was a small settlement of the Brooklyn Saints six miles downriver. Nathaniel Jones wrote: “We have been passing through the Indians for several days. They are very numerous and are called the ‘diggers.’ They live upon grass seed and roots, and go naked except a wisp of grass tied around them.”
Wilford Woodruff’s Journal, 3:199; “Erastus Snow Journal Excerpts,” Improvement Era 15:56; Autobiography of John Brown, 76; Watson, ed., The Orson Pratt Journals, 422; Appleton Milo Harmon Goes West, 31; William Clayton’s Journal, 225‑28; “Lyman Littlefield Reminiscences (1888),” 192; Brooks, ed., On the Mormon Frontier, 1:260; Bagley, ed., The Pioneer Camp of the Saints, 186‑87; “The Journal of Robert S. Bliss,” Utah Historical Quarterly, 4:95; “The Journal of Nathaniel V. Jones,” Utah Historical Quarterly, 4:18; Smart, ed., Mormon Midwife, 84; Ward, ed., Winter Quarters, 169
Thomas Bullock recorded in his journal:
Opened with a lovely morning. The place I had to stand guard was on a hill where I had a beautiful view & delightful company, the Birds were singing merrily. The country looked Green. I could see a great distance in some directions. A solemnity prevailed near me & altogether to praise their Creator. Two Deer galloped by in their happy manner & “the Brook murmured by” in its course to the Father of Waters.
He observed a grave near the camp with a name written on a stone: “J. Umbree 1843.”12
At 7:30 a.m., the pioneers moved out of camp. The morning was warm, fifty‑seven degrees. They were fascinated to see a stream flow through a natural tunnel in a mountain. Howard Egan recorded: “It runs through a tunnel from ten to twenty rods under the high bluffs. The tunnel is high enough for a man to stand upright in it, and the light can be seen through from the other side.
After traveling almost nine miles and crossing three streams, they halted for the noon rest on the east side of a stream about thirty feet wide. They had crossed over several steep bluffs and the streams had been difficult to ford. One of the Missouri companies could be seen a few miles ahead of them. William Clayton said: “We have learned today from one of the travelers that there is one man living and making a farm in the Bear River valley.”
At 1:45 p.m., the wagons rolled out. During the afternoon, they came within sight of the North Platte River for the first time in several days. They came upon a sick horse that had been left to die by the Missouri companies ahead. The men tried to treat it, but also had to leave it behind.
William Clayton recorded: “At a quarter to six we passed another stream about thirty feet wide and two feet deep, swift current and clear water. Name is Deer Creek. There is plenty of timber on its banks and abundance of good, rich grass for our teams. We formed our encampment on the west bank in a grove of large timber.”13
In the creek there were plenty of fish. William Clayton caught twenty‑four herring with a hook and line. A few catfish were caught by others. A bed of stone coal was found a quarter mile upstream. The coal vein was about ten feet thick and about 300 feet long. George A. Smith and Albert Carrington brought samples back into camp. The hunters killed several antelope.
The Twelve walked down to the North Platte to examine the river and have prayers.
Erastus Snow wrote:
I have been agreeably surprised in the country of the Black Hills, over which we have travelled a distance of ninety miles from Fort Laramie. Instead of sand and continual barrenness, without water, as I had expected, we have found hard roads through the hills, and at convenient distances beautiful creeks skirted with timber, and bottoms covered with grass, though the country otherwise presents generally a rough and barren appearance.
Harriet Young added: “The scenery is romantic, the grass is up to 8 or 10 inches high and yet within six miles there is bed of snow to be seen.”
Wilford Woodruff recorded this experience:
At the blowing of the horn I did not feel much like retiring to bed so I walked 1/2 mile from the camp on the bank of Deer Creek & found Br Clayton fishing with a hook. He had caught about two dozen good fish. Another Br Harmon had caught some. They resembled the eastern Herrin. They were about to leave & they left their lines for me to fish with so I sat down for half an hour musing alone as unconcerned as though I had been sitting upon the banks of Farmington River. Very suddenly I heard a rustling in the bushes near me & for the first time the thought flashed across my mine that I was in a country abounding with grizzly bear, wolves, & Indians and was liable to be attacked by either of them at any moment & was half a mile from any company & had no weapon not even enough to have defend myself against a badger & I thought wisdom dictated for me to return to camp so I took up my polls & fish & walked leasurely home & retired to rest which closed the business of the day.
As the second company of pioneers continued to gather at the Elkhorn, the men built a fence to pen in the cattle.
Mary Richards visited Sister Taylor to bid her good‑bye. Sister Taylor was about to leave with the second pioneer company. Hosea Stout delivered the public arms to Alpheus Cutler, as ordered, and the wagon to Charles C. Rich to be used for his journey west.
Brother Stout was getting frustrated in his efforts to figure out what was going to be done with the guard in the second pioneer company, and whether or not he would be going with them. He wrote:
[I] could not learn anything about it nor as much as get any of them [the leaders] to talk on the subject to any satisfaction but to refer me to the other. [Isaac] Morley refered me to [Charles C.] Rich & he to [John] Taylor, who requested me not to trouble him about it for he said he had never considered it before, and refered me to [Alpheus] Cutler & he said he had not time to talk & [Newel K.] Whitney knew nothing about it. Thus I was sent around all day and learning nothing so seeing that there was no arrangement for either me or a guard on the journey, I now give up the idea of going & bought a house of Br A[braham] O. Smoot which was more spacious & comfortable than the one I now occupied.
Those at Summer Quarters were busy plowing and harrowing corn. At 2 p.m., Isaac Morley came for a short visit.14
Several men were detailed to go to San Pedro to guard a military store.
Diary of Howard Egan, Pioneering the West, 69‑71; Appleton Milo Harmon Goes West, 32; “Erastus Snow Journal Excerpts,” Improvement Era 15:164; Kenney, ed., Wilford Woodruff’s Journal, 3:199‑200; William Clayton’s Journal, 228‑30; Bagley, ed., The Pioneer Camp of the Saints, 187‑88; Ward, ed., Winter Quarters, 147; Brooks, ed., On the Mormon Frontier, 1:260; Kelly, ed., Journals of John D. Lee, 175; Journal of Henry Standage in Golder, The March of the Mormon Battalion, 225; “Diary of Lorenzo Dow Young,” Utah Historical Quarterly, 14:161; Smart, ed., Mormon Midwife, 84
Howard Egan wrote:
The morning was very pleasant. I stood guard the later part of the night, in the place of some of the brethren that have gone ahead. About 3 o’clock this morning I commenced cleaning the fish Brother Clayton caught. I fried them and we had a firstrate breakfast. This is the first place I have seen since we left Winter Quarters, where I should like to live. The land is good and plenty of timber and the warbling of the birds make is very pleasant.
Thomas Bullock wrote on a skull a message to the next company and also planted a hill of corn as he had been doing for some time.
The pioneers traveled along the North Platte river bottoms all day. They rode their horses into the river several times to see if they could find a place to ford, but the water level was too high from the melting snow in the mountains. Appleton Harmon wrote: “No timber, only now and then a few scattering cottonwoods, in groups along the river. At times we changed our direction to wind around some ravine that sits back from the river, or some gutter that had been washed by the heavy rain in the sandy soil which was but partially covered by grass and wild sage.”
William Clayton put up a guide board indicating that it was one hundred miles to Fort Laramie. Some of the brethren had started to taken an interest in his guide boards and helped him to find good wood to be used for the signs.
They camped in a cottonwood grove after traveling seventeen miles, near two of the three Missouri companies, who were trying to ferry over their wagons with their skiff and newly constructed rafts. Thomas Bullock observed: “The two camps half a mile off make more noise by ten times than all our camp put together.” The emigrants told the brethren that the advance company of pioneers was working a ferry crossing ten miles further up the river. One of the emigrants brought a snowball to camp. They had been up the mountains and reported the two or three bears had been killed by their company. Orson Pratt learned about an accident that happened in one of these companies. “The day before their teams took fright by the running of a horse, upsetting two of their wagons: one woman and two children considerably injured, but no bones broke: some crockery, &c. broken.”
The hunters had great success. They brought in thirteen antelope. The Missouri company killed three buffalo. Appleton Harmon described the surroundings: “There is a range off to the black hills or mountains extending in a long parallel with the river from two to four miles distant and most of which is thickly covered with evergreens, mostly cedar, and at this time is partially covered with snow which can be distinctly seen from the camp.”
The advance company of about forty men arrived at the ferry crossing, four hours ahead of any of the Missouri companies.15 They could not find the boat made from buffalo skins which they had been told was left behind by a company of traders. Soon, some of those from the Missouri companies arrived. One of the men of the Missourian company tried to swim across the river with his clothes on. When he reached the current he became frightened and began to moan. Some of the pioneers went to him with the “Revenue Cutter” and reached him in time to save his life.
While camped at Lodgepole Creek,16 the detachment from Pueblo met Amasa Lyman, Roswell Stevens, John Tippets, and Thomas Woolsey. They had been sent from Fort Laramie by Brigham Young to bring these Saints to follow after the pioneer company. Amasa Lyman delivered a large package of letters to the battalion from their families back on the Missouri River.
William Karchner wrote about battalion member John Hess: “On meeting them Brother John Hess ran and embraced and kissed Amasa for joy.” John Hess, recalled: “This was indeed a happy meeting to get new from our loved ones and it greatly relieved our anxieties as we then learned that the camp ahead of us led by President Brigham Young and he led by revelations, so we pushed on with fresh courage.” Joel Terrell was somewhat miffed at being charged postage for the letters from home. “At any rate it gave us another chance to part with one dollar more of our hard earnings . . . it was joy and grief to me.”
Fifty-five more wagons belonging to the second pioneer company crossed over the Elkhorn on rafts. Patriarch John Smith, the uncle of Joseph Smith, arrived from Winter Quarters.
Mary Richards spent the day saying good‑bye to several families who were about to leave in the next pioneer company. She wrote: “May the Lord bless them and bring them to the end of the journey in Peace and safety.”
For some time, Eliza R. Snow and other sisters had been participating in sacred meetings at which the Spirit of the Lord was in great abundance and spiritual gifts were experienced. In the afternoon, such a meeting was held. Sister Snow wrote: “We had a glorious time ‑‑ Sis. Leavitt & M[argaret] Peirce spoke in the gift [of tongues] & I could truly say that my heart was fill’d to overflowing with gratitude to my Father in heaven.
An express arrived from Monterey with some letters from the Kearny detachment. Orders were read from Colonel Mason, now governor of California. One of the orders was related to the case of John Allen, a battalion member who joined the Church at Fort Leavenworth and signed up with the battalion to go to California. He had been in jail for deserting his post as a guard. He also no longer belonged to the Church. He had been cut off by a Quorum of Seventy at Los Angeles for drunkenness, swearing, and other vices. Henry Standage believed he had never really been a Mormon, showing a bad spirit for the whole journey. The order stated that his sentence should be to have half of his hair shaved and to be drummed out of town.
Elder Addison Pratt arrived at San Francisco after a long voyage from his mission that lasted nearly four years to the South Pacific. When he landed, he met many of the Saints who came to California on the ship Brooklyn. He discovered that their leader, Samuel Brannan was away to visit the pioneers, hoping to guide them to California. Elder Pratt wrote:
I soon found there was much dissatisfaction among the Brooklyn brethren as to Brannan’s proceedings while on board of the Brooklyn, and several of them proposed to me to take charge of the spiritual affairs among them. But I told them it was not my place to meddle with their affairs in any wise as Brannan was the man that was appointed by the church to look after them, and my mission was to another part of the world altogether.
As the detachment traveled toward Sacramento, they came across some Americans. They learned that a letter had been received from the Church and that Samuel Brannan had gone back to pilot them through the mountains to California. In the evening, they met Brother Thomas Rhoads, who with his family had been the first Church members to emigrate overland to California. They had arrived in October, 1846. He told them that there were Church members settled in several different places throughout the area.
Wilford Woodruff’s Journal, 3:200‑01; Watson, ed., The Orson Pratt Journals, 423; Appleton Milo Harmon Goes West, 32; Diary of Howard Egan, Pioneering the West, 71‑2; William Clayton’s Journal, 228; Bagley, ed., The Pioneer Camp of the Saints, 188‑89; Ellsworth, ed., The Journals of Addison Pratt, 330; Ward, ed., Winter Quarters, 147; Yurtinus, A Ram in the Thicket, 322‑23; Journal of Henry Standage in Golder, The March of the Mormon Battalion, 225; The Personal Writings of Eliza Roxcy Snow, 177; “The Journal of Nathaniel V. Jones,” Utah Historical Quarterly, 4:18; Our Pioneer Heritage, 2:443; Smart, ed., Mormon Midwife, 84
At 8 a.m., the pioneers continued their journey along the North Platte River. Wilford Woodruff recorded how he was bitten by a horse: “I started in the morning to go forward in company with Br. Albert P. Rockwood who was riding President Young’s stud when suddenly he sprung upon my horse but instead of striking my horse, he took my knee into his Jaw & bruised me considerable. Sunk one tooth to the bone through three thicknesses of clothing & one of them buck skin.”
After crossing over two creeks, they halted for the midday rest at noon. One of the creeks was crossed over on a bridge, which the advance group of pioneers had built.
News came from the advance group at the ferry crossing four miles ahead that they were busy helping two small bands of emigrants ferry across the river. Brother Alexander P. Chesley had traveled back and reported that they were receiving thirty‑four dollars for the service.17 The goods were loaded in the “Revenue Cutter” and the wagons were pulled over by a rope fastened to the end of the wagon tongue. Frequently the wagons would roll over because of the fierce current. The river crossing was about one hundred yards across, and fifteen feet deep. Some of the horses almost drowned as they were swimming across. The payment for the crossing service was made in desperately needed flour.
Rodney Badger traded a wagon for a horse, one hundred pounds of flour, twenty‑eight pounds of bacon, and some crackers. William Clayton remarked: “The Missourian company seem to feel well toward us and express their joy at having got across the river so soon.” They made quite a feast for the brethren to thank them.
Stephen Markham learned from Judge Bowman, the leader of one of the Missouri companies, that his son, William Bowman had been murdered for aiding in the escape of Joseph and Hyrum Smith from Liberty Jail, Missouri, in 1839. The mob had been led by Obediah Jennings. The Missouri mob had rode William Bowman on a bar of iron until he died.
The main pioneer company debated for a half hour whether or not they should cross the river at their current point or travel four miles more to join the advance group. They had been able to ford the river on horses, but they decided to travel on.
After four miles, they made a half circle with the wagons on the bank of the river, one-half mile east of the ferry location. The hunters killed three buffalo, a black bear, some cubs, and several antelope. Seeley Owen killed a mountain goat and said that there were plenty of others in the mountains.18 Wilford Woodruff visited the camp of some of the traders and saw the foot of a bear that measured seven and a half inches long.
Tunis Rappleye19 and Artemas Johnson20 were reported missing. Brother Rappleye returned at 11 p.m. He had foolishly tried to hike up to the mountains to get some snow, but the mountains were much further than he thought. Brother Johnson was found by some of the men. He had become lost while hunting. A company of horseman with the bugler was sent out to search for them. Guns were fired and a large bonfire built to help them find the camp. They even “sounded the conk shell.” Erastus Snow recorded the two men’s reaction after they finally returned to camp: “Their extreme mortification at being the cause of so much trouble and anxiety in camp served greatly to heighten the merited chastisement which they received from the president. They reported the mountains to be full of bear, elk antelope and sheep, and snow from six to ten feet deep in places.” Brother Rappleye had accepted a bet of one dollar to retrieve the snow. The snow ball melted in his hand at the foot of the mountain. He now said that he would not go on another such journey after a snow ball for one hundred dollars.
The number of families continued to swell at the gathering point for the second pioneer company at the Elkhorn River. Some men went fishing in the rain with a net, but came back without any fish. News arrived that one of Parley P. Pratt’s wives, Mary Ann Frost Pratt, arrived at Winter Quarters from Nauvoo. Elder Pratt left the camp to go see her.21
Eliza R. Snow started her journey to the mountain west. She wrote in her journal: “Bade farewell to many who seem dearer to me than life & seated in the carriage with [Margaret Peirce] & [Edith Evaline Peirce] I took my departure from Winter Quarters.” It soon started raining and shortly after that one of the wagons in her company broke their wagon tongue and it had to be repaired. They traveled seven miles toward the Elkhorn River and camped with a company of fourteen wagons. Sister Snow continued: “I felt a loneliness for a while after parting with my friends but the spirit of consolation & rejoicing return’d & I journey’d with good cheer.” Later, Sister Snow recalled:
Previous to starting for an indefinite point ‑‑ probably one thousand miles into the interior, and far from all supplies, the idea of an outfit was a very important consideration. Some of our brethren had purchased and brought from St. Louis a few articles of Merchandise, which supplied our local store with some of the necessaries and comforts for journeying. I was to start immediately, and what about my outfit? Its extent must be determined by the amount of means. On examining my purse, I found it contained one dime ‑‑ I was nearly minus ink ‑‑ I could not go without that article: one dime was just the price of a bottle, and I made the purchase.
Mary Richards lamented in a letter to her missionary husband, Samuel, that the Van Cott family, who recently left with the pioneer company, took all the cattle used by the Richards’ family. The Van Cott’s cattle had died during the winter, so they had to take back the cattle they loaned to the Richards. “So you will see we are left without.” They only had one cow. She continued: “I would like much to go on next Season, if we could conveniantly but I feel very contented about it, for I expect the means will have to come through my Samuel and I know he will do the best he can. At any rate, I shall be satisfide to be where he is, wither it be here or the Land of promise.” She continued: “We hear that the Mormon Battalion have arrived in California, but we hear nothing from our friends who are with them of late. It seems as though I can scarcely endure to think about them since Joseph is no more.” She wrote about the city. “There is a merchant here from St. Louis who has brought up a large quantity of dry good groceries &c &c and opened a store in the Council House. They sell very reasonable. Winter Quarters has quite the appearance of a City, and I never saw the Ladys dress half so well in Nauvoo as they do here. We have a firstrate Mill here and in fact it is quite a business city.”
Because the Winter Quarters mill was no longer functioning, John D. Lee resorted to using a mortar with a spring pole to beat corn into meal. There was some trouble in the settlement as the stock was destroying crops.
Elder Lyman O. Littlefield, on the way to England on a mission, met up with his companion, Brother Fox. Elder Littlefield wrote of Kirtland at that time: “We found there several members of the Church ‑‑ some of them firm in the faith, some rather lukewarm. There were plenty of apostates, the leader of whom was William E. M’Lellin, once one of the Twelve Apostles.”
John Spidle was thrown from his horse and was badly injured.
Appleton Milo Harmon Goes West, 33; History of the Church, 3:321; Diary of Howard Egan, Pioneering the West, 72‑3; Watson, ed., The Orson Pratt Journals, 424; Watson, ed., The Manuscript History of Brigham Young, 558‑59; “Erastus Snow Journal Excerpts,” Improvement Era 15:166; Kenney, ed., Wilford Woodruff’s Journal, 3:201‑02; Bagley, ed., The Pioneer Camp of the Saints, 191; Kelly, ed., Journals of John D. Lee, 175; William Clayton’s Journal, 233‑36; “Journal of Albert P. Rockwood,” typescript, BYU, 54; The Personal Writings of Eliza Roxcy Snow, 177; Our Pioneer Heritage, 17:335; “Lyman Littlefield Reminiscences (1888),” 192; Journal of Henry Standage in Golder, The March of the Mormon Battalion, 225; “Norton Jacob Journal,” typescript, BYU, 89; Smart, ed., Mormon Midwife, 84; Our Pioneer Heritage, 17:211; Book Reviews; BYU Studies, 33:2:358; Autobiography of Parley P. Pratt, 374; Ward, ed., Winter Quarters, 171-72; “Life of George Whitaker, A Pioneer, as written by himself,” in Madsen, Journey to Zion, 59
The morning was very pleasant. A prayer meeting was held at 9 a.m. At 11 a.m., a preaching meeting was held. The first speaker was Heber C. Kimball, who spoke of the natural alienating principle in man. He said that it was natural for man to be concerned about themselves and independent. This could be seen in looking at the Missouri emigrant companies that were continually dividing themselves into smaller companies. But the Saints needed to put away their selfishness and become one.
Elder Kimball testified that the mission they were on was the greatest in the history of the Church. Some talked about staying at the ferry site to earn money from the emigrants, but he felt it was more important to be part of the historic pioneer company than to even earn a fee of fifty dollars per wagon ferrying them across.
He urged the brethren to obey counsel. He told a story about Joseph Smith. “Brother Joseph once told me to drive my team between two trees where one horse could not go through. I said I could not. Joseph stared at me. ‘Drive through.’ I jerked my reins and popped my whip. ‘There,’ said Joseph, ‘that will do. I only wanted to see you try.’”
Elder Kimball used one of his favorite analogies ‑‑ the potter and clay. Every man had the privilege of being exalted to honor and glory if he did not mar in the hands of the potter. William Clayton said his remarks were “very touching and appropriate to our circumstances.”
Brigham Young next spoke to the camp. He spoke on the liberty of the gospel. He showed how living the gospel had blessed their lives. He said that some wanted their liberty to ignore the camp rules, to curse, swear, run to the mountains, but would that be liberty? No, it would lead to death, not life. “This is the liberty of the gospel: Not giving men license to commit sin, but delivering them from the bondage of sin.” The way to best worship God was to be obedient. They could clearly see the difference between their camp and the Missouri emigrant camp. Those ruffians would be forgotten, but the Saints, if faithful, would inherit the earth and increase in power and glory.
Orson Pratt exhorted the camp to listen to President Young’s teachings and “to improve our time in treasuring up useful knowledge that we ought not to spend a moments time needlessly.” They were to avoid “all excesses of folly of every description, inasmuch as it disqualifies from the society of just men and angels.”
In the afternoon, the captains met at President Young’s wagon to plan how to take the company across the river. A few men were to cross the river and make rafts that would be used to help haul over the wagon contents. It was also decided to send men to the mountains, seven miles away, to obtain poles for the river crossing. These poles would be used to lash two or four waggons together to prevent them from rolling over like the Missouri company wagons. The men departed on horses and soon arrived at the mountains where they found plenty of snow. They washed their faces with the snow and came back with the poles and some snow at 9 p.m.
Meanwhile, Brigham Young and others took the boat into the river to ascertain its depth. They found it to be six feet deep. Some of the men from the advance group at the river crossing ahead came into camp and presented flour and bacon to the leaders. Brigham Young instructed that the provisions be divided up throughout the camp. The Missouri emigrants had been very generous in their payment for the ferry service. Wilford Woodruff wrote: “It looked as much of a miracle to me to see our flour and meal bags replenished in the Black Hills as it did to have the children of Israel fed with manna in the wilderness. But the Lord has been truly with us on our journey. . . . Great good will grow out of this mission if we are faithful in keeping the commandments of God.”
The lead pioneers also displayed a bear paw which Thomas Bullock wrote would “give any man an ugly clutch, or the ball of his foot would give a man a very ugly box on the ear, & may the Lord preserve me from such animals.” William Clayton wrote: “The day has been very hot, more like a summer day than any we have yet had on the journey. The ground seems to be alive with the large crickets, and it is said that the bears feed on them and pick them up very fast. A person who has never seen them could form no idea of the vast numbers of crickets in this region.”
Wilford Woodruff wrote in his journal about his recent study of the scriptures. “I have taken great delight of late in reading the Book of Mormon, seeing the great & glorious things revealed & recorded in that book & that we are now trying to fulfill . . . building up Zion, redeeming Israel, warning the Nations & sealing salvation upon the meek of the earth & laying a foundation that the earth may be prepared for the coming of the Messiah.”
Amasa Lyman spoke to the soldiers and Mississippi Saints, exhorting the brethren to “leave off card playing and profane swearing and return to God.”
Eliza R. Snow, traveling with the Peirces, continued her journey toward the Elkhorn River. She met Parley P. Pratt returning to Winter Quarters to see his wife. She wrote: “Arriv’d at Horn just before sunset ‑‑ my feelings were very peculiar thro’ the day ‑‑ it verily seem’d that the glory of God rested down on the wagons (21 in No.) and overspread the prairie.”
Many of the Saints continued to roll out of Winter Quarters, to gather at the Elkhorn River and to organize for the next pioneer company. Andrew J. Allen wrote: “We started on the 13th of June, 1847. I had two ox teams. One of my sisters, Marthy went with me. My wife and her were the only help I had to help me drive the team. I had four small children. My two brothers not being able to get a fit out could not go on and we had to part for the time being.” Sister Phoebe Woodruff, wife of Wilford Woodruff, recorded that she left Winter Quarters with her nineteen‑day-old baby. “I began the journey to follow the pioneers. . . . I started with dear old father, Aphek Woodruff, blessed be his name, for in the hands of the Lord, he was the means of saving my life.”
William Casper recorded: “According to plans, on June 13, 1847, I took two yoke of oxen, Casper’s wagon, his cow, bedding, provisions for over a year in a desert home, placed Sister Sarah Ann and babe on the spring seat of the wagon, with faith that the goodbyes were for but a year when we would all be together again.”
Leonard Harrington also left: “I started from Winter Quarters on the 13th of June, with my family, consisting of four (as we had previously taken a little girl 11 years old by the name of Emma Blocksom), with one wagon, three yoke of oxen, two cows, one mare and colt, provisions for a year and a half, some seed grain, clothing, farming tools, etc.”
Isaac C. Haight wrote: “[Left] Winter Quarters and started for the West in good health. We travelled about five miles and camped by a small point of timber.”
Mary Richards visited with Mary Ann Frost Pratt. Sister Richards recorded: “She has been very sick before coming out here and her health is still poor. I think she is a very unhappy woman and a very good one also.”
A council meeting was held in the evening. An order was given to keep all cattle out of the corn field. The owner of any cattle or horses found in the field would pay a fine of a dollar for each. Alpheus Cutler and Hosea Stout were authorized to raise as many men to guard the city as they thought proper. A letter arrived from the Pioneer company, which was sent from the head of Grand Island on May 4th.22
At 3 p.m., the Saints gathered at John D. Lee’s house for a Sabbath meeting. They were addressed by Levi Stewart, Brother Johnson, and Brother Lee. After the meeting was adjourned at 5 p.m., all the other brethren were asked to remain to discuss some business. They needed to discuss what should be done to protect the crops that were being overrun by the cattle. Brother Lee said, “I will say that there has not been a day nor a night but what there has been more or less stock turned off our crops.” The brethren discussed the problem for an hour and voted to pen the cattle up better.
Elder Lyman O Littlefield, on the way to his mission in England wrote:
Being anxious to see the inside of the temple, on Sunday 13 I went to meeting, feeling doubtful whether I would have another opportunity, as M’Lellin had possession of the key. A man by the name of Knight ‑‑ who joined J[ames] J. Strang but at that time a follower of M’Lellin ‑‑ occupied the stand. He dwelt upon the abominations he said the Church had entered into, in consequence of which the Saints had been driven into the wilderness to suffer. M’Lellin followed him and talked of the secret orders which he falsely said were in the Church ‑‑ said they were contrary to the Book of Mormon, said David Whitmer was the man to lead the Church, that Joseph Smith transgressed about the year 1831, and only had power left with God to appoint another in his stead, which he said Joseph did in 1844 by appointing David Whitmer. To confirm this he referred to a conversation he had in Pittsburg with Benjamin Winchester. After meeting I was shown through the interior of the temple. I also went upon the top or roof of that noble structure where a delightful view was obtained of Kirtland and the surrounding country.
The detachment arrived at the American Fork River and crossed it about one and a half miles from Sacramento. Nathaniel V. Jones wrote: “Sutter’s Fort is one and one‑half miles from the crossing; there are twenty‑five soldiers stationed at this place. Crossed the river just at night. This is called St. Clare Fort.”
A general inspection was held by Colonel Stevenson in the morning of arms and quarters. In the afternoon, as Henry Standage was going to water his mare, a Mexican woman scared his mare purposely, which caused Henry to be thrown and injured. Some of the men were working on a ranch for a man named Isaac Williams to cut grain and to dig a mill race.
“Journal of Albert P. Rockwood,” typescript, BYU, 54; “Journal of William A. Empey,” Annals of Wyoming, 21:132; Kenney, ed., Wilford Woodruff’s Journal, 3:203‑04; Autobiography of John Brown, 76; Diary of Howard Egan, Pioneering the West, 73; Appleton Milo Harmon Goes West, 33; Bagley, ed., The Pioneer Camp of the Saints, 191; William Clayton’s Journal, 236‑37; Our Pioneer Heritage, 1:103, 10:234; William Casper, Biography, typescript, 3; “Leonard Harrington, Journal,” Utah Historical Quarterly 8:13; “Lyman Littlefield Reminiscences (1888),” 192; Brooks, ed., On the Mormon Frontier, 1:260; Kelly, ed., Journals of John D. Lee, 175‑77; “The Journal of Nathaniel V. Jones,” Utah Historical Quarterly, 4:18; Yurtinus, A Ram in the Thicket, 323; Journal of Henry Standage in Golder, The March of the Mormon Battalion, 226; “Isaac C. Haight Journal,” typescript, 40; “Norton Jacob Journal,” typescript, 89; Ward, ed., Winter Quarters, 175
At first light, the pioneers started to ferry their wagon contents across the river in “Revenue Cutter.” A raft was also used, but the current was so strong that it made it unsafe to take provisions across on the raft. A rope was stretched across the river at the narrowest place, two wagons were lashed together with poles, and the pioneers attempted to float them across the river. When the wagon wheels hit sand near the other side, the strong current rolled over John Pack’s wagon, breaking the wagon bow and causing other damage. They next tried to lash four wagons together, and again tried to drag them across with the rope. This method worked much better. The wagons reached the other side in safety but one of the poles broke.
Howard Egan wrote:
Not having poles or rope enough to lash them, we thought we would try one wagon alone. Some of the brethren thought that if some person would get in the wagon and ride on the upper side, it would prevent it from turning over. I volunteered to go across in it. Soon after we pushed off, Brother [Andrew] Gibbons jumped in the river and caught hold of the end of the wagon. When we got out about the middle of the river, the wagon began to fill with water, and roll from one side to the other, and then turn over on the side. I got on the upper side and hung on for a short time, when it rolled over leaving me off. I saw that I was in danger of being caught in the wheels or the bows, and I swam off, but one of the wheels struck my leg and bruised it some. I struck out for the shore with my cap in one hand. The wagon rolled over a number of times and was hauled ashore. It received no damage, except the bows were broken.
They soon concluded that the safest way to take the wagons across would be to ferry them over on rafts. They understood that this method would take much time. The journey would be delayed for several days. Two or three rafts made of pine poles were completed and used for this purpose. Many of the men worked all day in the water. Only twenty‑four wagons were taken across during the day.
A very heavy thunder storm blew in at 3:30 p.m. with hail and severe wind. Wilford Woodruff wrote:
We had just drawn Dr. Richards two waggons of his goods on the shore & loaded them into his waggons with all speed. Just got through as the storm struck us. I sprung into my carriage & tied all down tight but the rain, wind & hail beat upon me so heavy that I had to lay out most of my strength to hold my waggon cover on. Both hail & rain came inside my carriage untill my bed & things were nearly drenched. It only lasted 7 minutes but was very severe.
The horses panicked and ran two or three miles away during the storm. William Clayton recorded:
After the storm was over the ferrying was continued, getting my trunk, etc., and the loads in Brother Johnson and Harmon’s wagons over, and also Harmon’s wagon, Johnson’s being got over just before the storm. It took till nearly ten o’clock to get the loading into the wagons and get regulated. The river has been rising all day and has risen very fast since the storm. The men have tried hard, much of the time being in the water and sometimes up to their armpits which is very fatiguing indeed.
About 200 wagons were camped side by side. As the second large company of pioneers continued to gather, the men stayed very busy building rafts, crossing over wagons, building bridges and fires, and preparing for the long journey ahead. Eliza R. Snow crossed over the river on a raft in the afternoon. Patty Sessions wrote: “Sister Snow and a great many others have come to day.” Sisters Snow, Sessions, and their close friends continued to meet together and experience the gift of tongues. Parley P. Pratt rejoined the pioneers with the sad news that his wife, Mary Ann Frost, was returning to Maine with their children, Olivia, age six, and Moroni, age two. John Taylor also arrived at the Elkhorn.
One of Brigham Young’s wives, Harriet Cook Young, wrote a letter to her husband that included: “I feel my weakness at this time, and my inability to perform this task well, but knowing that my greatest fault has been not placing the confidence in you that I ought, I am determined to lay too with all my might and overcome it.” She mentioned that their infant son, Oscar Brigham, was recovering from a severe burn. “Oscar is well and playful as ever. . . . His arm is almost well. He can use it well as the other. He was burnt bad but I am glad it was no worse.”
The Charles C. Rich family, numbering seventeen people including teamsters, left Winter Quarters. They traveled three miles and camped for the night. Brother Rich returned to Winter Quarters in the evening to “urge forward the artillery.”
Hosea Stout moved into the recently vacated home of Abraham O. Smoot which was much more comfortable than the Stout’s former home. Despite the warning about cattle destroying corn, a large herd was brought in from the corn. The owners were not pleased because they would have to face up to the penalty. The stray pen was full during the night. A guard was placed at it to keep the cattle from being taken away without paying a fine.
Newel K. Whitney wrote a letter to his sons, Horace and Orson, who were with Brigham Young’s pioneer company. Bishop Whitney told them that he had sent a wagon from Winter Quarters for the mountains. He had wanted to send three wagons, but because the mill dam had broken, he only had enough breadstuff for one wagon. This wagon was in the charge of Archibald Hill and Stillman Pond. Brother Hill and Pond were being sent to take care of the Whitney family interests until Bishop Whitney arrived at the new mountain home. Bishop Whitney wrote about Winter Quarters:
It is a general time of health in this place, but there are quite a number of poor on our hands, which makes it rather hard times; but as we have a large quantity of grain growing, we hope we shall be able to do better by them by and by. We have been hindered in starting a company early, as anticipated when you left, in consequence of not being able to procure a supply of breadstuff sufficient to warrant it, and some other reasons might be assigned.
We have concluded to fit out but one company to the mountains this season, and it is expected that it will consist of not less than from four to five hundred wagons, from the present calculations, and the most of them will be under the necessity of taking the greater part of their grain unground. Bro. Eldredge takes a pair of small millstones with him, and the necessary irons, etc., to set a mill in operation by horse power or otherwise, in a short time after his arrival at the place of destination.
The men each received one horse for the journey east, over the mountains. They dried some beef during the day. Nathaniel Jones commented on the Sacramento area: “We are thirty‑five miles from the head of the bay. Corn does not do so well unless it is watered. Mechanics wages are very high, also all kinds of common labor. Land can be bought for twenty‑five cents per acre, wheat one dollar per bushel.”
John Allen, a disgraced soldier, had his head half shaved and was drummed out of town. He was marched between four sentinels with drummers and fifers in the rear. He was marched through town at the point of a bayonet as the musicians played the “Rogues March.” He would not be allowed to return until the war was over. If he did, he would be locked up in irons for the duration.
William Pace recalled Allen’s crime of leaving his guard post:
Well he left his post, came into town, traded off his gun and accoutrements for wine, got drunk and was found next day in an Indian Rancherie by an officer of the guard. . . . Being requested I joined the drum chore and assisted in drumming him out of camp and out of town. For the information of those that never saw a man “drummed out,” I will say he was a tall, well‑proportioned man with heavy beard, one half of which, and one half of the hair of his head was shaved off clean, leaving the remainder to show up. He was then brought on the parade ground by the guard (a file of soldiers) the band was formed and sentence of the court martial read to him. Then it became the duty of the fifers and drummers to play the “Rogues March” until he was well out of camp, and out of town, then he was turned loose with instruction to leave the country and never be seen, or he would be subject to arrest and be shot on sight.
A great celebration was held because of the happy news received that General Zachary Taylor was victorious over thousands of Mexicans. It was reported that American forces would soon reach Mexico City. The cannon was fired from both the fort and the town. Robert S. Bliss remarked, perhaps with a smile: “The Catholic Church had a few less Glass than usual when we ceased firing. The ceremony was concluded at sun down by firing the guns & lowering the flags with 3 Cheers.”
Appleton Milo Harmon Goes West, 34; Diary of Howard Egan, Pioneering the West, 73‑4; Watson, ed., The Orson Pratt Journals, 425; “Luke S. Johnson Journal,” typescript, BYU, 12; Jesse, “Brigham Young’s Family: The Wilderness Years,” 41; Kenney, ed., Wilford Woodruff’s Journal, 3:204‑05; “The History and Journal of Jesse W. Crosby,” typescript, BYU, 33; William Clayton’s Journal, 237; “Sarah Rich Autobiography,” typescript, BYU, 69‑70; Brooks, ed., On the Mormon Frontier, 1:260; The Personal Writings of Eliza Roxcy Snow, 178; “The Journal of Nathaniel V. Jones,” Utah Historical Quarterly, 4:18; Journal of Henry Standage in Golder, The March of the Mormon Battalion, 226; “The Journal of Robert S. Bliss,” Utah Historical Quarterly, 4:95; The “Private Journal of Thomas Dunn,” typescript, 25; Arrington, Charles C. Rich, 113; “William Pace Autobiography,” BYU, 17; Smart, ed., Mormon Midwife, 85; Woman’s Exponent, 15:1:6
The pioneers tried to continue to ferry across the wagons, but had a very difficult time because the river level had risen from the recent rains and the winds were high. Two more rafts were constructed. In the afternoon, only twenty-five additional wagons were ferried across, during which time more rain fell. The method used to get the wagons across on this day was to load them on a raft, pull the raft upstream more than a mile with oxen, and then with oars row across, landing at the opposite side across from the initial starting point.
William Clayton wrote: “In the afternoon they commenced driving over some of the horses and cattle belonging to Brother Crow’s company. They neglected to take the lariats off the horses and the buffalo horse was soon seen to be drowning. Some of the men immediately went to it with the skiff and dragged him to the shore but could not succeed in bringing him to life.”
Another company of Missouri emigrants with eighteen wagons arrived at the river crossing and wanted the pioneers to also help them across. It was decided to leave behind about ten brethren at this point to establish a ferry until the second pioneer company arrived. By providing a ferry service for the hundreds of Oregon emigrants on the trail, many provisions could be obtained as fees for this service. The reports received from emigrants convinced the leaders that the second pioneer company of Saints might already be as far as Grand Island.23
The battalion detachment was met by a Sioux Indian war party. Joel Terrell recorded that the Sioux were seen on horseback, armed with bows, arrows, guns, and spears: “There was not far from 100 that seen us at a distance supposed us to have been the Crow Indians with whom they were at war but finding the mistake they all commenced shaking hands with us and you may depend they went the whole hog at that. They gladly escorted us to Laramie.”
Sarah Rich, wife of Charles C. Rich, recorded: “We traveled about fifteen miles and overtook Brother [John] Taylor’s company, and on the 15th we reached Elkhorn River and the main camp crossing the river. It took a long time to cross over, there were so many wagons and stock here.” About three hundred wagons crossed over by noon.
Isaac C. Haight recorded: “Crossed the river on a float made of cottonwood logs. Found many of the brethren waiting for the whole company to come up.”
A liberty pole was erected on the west side of the Elkhorn. Parley P. Pratt began to organize the huge company of 1,561 people leaving Winter Quarters to be part of the second pioneer company. He organized the company in a different manner than was initially proposed by Brigham Young.24 Issac Morley and Bishop Newel K. Whitney, visiting from Winter Quarters, helped to organize the camp. Parley P. Pratt and John Taylor, were appointed to preside over the spiritual affairs of the camp. John Young was appointed to be the president over the camp with Edward Hunter and Daniel Spencer as counselors. Jedediah M. Grant, Willard Snow, and Abraham O. Smoot were called to be captains of Hundreds. John Van Cott was appointed marshal of the camp and Charles C. Rich at the head of the military organization. William Staines was appointed as the camp historian.
Elder Pratt explained why the organization of the camp had to be modified: “Captains of hundreds, of fifties &c appointed last winter, are not here, some coming on, some [not]. Now I think it is best to act according to our circumstances.” He said that yes, they could stay another week and debate how the camp should be organized, but he believed they should not wait any longer. He understood that President Young wanted the company to be organized on adoptive family lines, but this was no longer practical. “Now act in cooperation & union with us & we will deliver you up to those whom you belong. You will not be hurt any nor lose any rights of yours.”
In the evening, Hosea Stout received an express letter written by Parley P. Pratt and John Taylor at the Elkhorn River. “The Council here has made the following vote which is here copied . . . that Hosea Stout be sent to mount his horse and come on immediately to act in his appointment as Captain of the Guard.” They mentioned that he was sustained in the public meeting held earlier in the day. They expected to see Brother Stout in the camp within 24 hours from the time he received the note.
This greatly frustrated Hosea Stout, who had asked the brethren many times if he should plan on coming with the second company. Because they would not give an answer, he had gone ahead and bought a new house. “I was now cited to mount my horse & leave home as a runaway & leave my family without any means for their substinance or provisions for myself only their blank promise to ‘sustain me as a people’ which was weak indeed and go & take my place as captain of the guard.” His pride had been hurt. He felt abused and neglected. He was inclined to refuse the order, but decided to sleep on it.
The detachment left Sacramento, starting their journey toward the mountains. They traveled fifteen miles and camped.
In the evening, some of the men heard an extract read from a journal belonging to a member of the Donner-Reed party. Henry Standage remarked that these members suffered so much in the mountains on their way to this country, having been caught in deep snows in the mountains and forced to eat their animals and afterwards the hides also, many dying and some forced to eat the bodies of the dead. Much suffering experienced by them all.
“Journal of Albert P. Rockwood,” typescript, BYU, 54‑5; Kenney, ed., Wilford Woodruff’s Journal, 3:205; “Luke S. Johnson Journal,” typescript, BYU, 12; William Clayton’s Journal, 238‑39; “Levi Jackman Autobiography,” typescript, BYU, 36; Appleton Milo Harmon Goes West, 34; “Sarah Rich Autobiography,” typescript, BYU, 69‑70; Watson, ed., Manuscript History of Brigham Young, 559; Stephen F. Pratt; BYU Studies 24:3:386; Brooks, ed., On the Mormon Frontier, 1:261 Journal of Henry Standage in Golder, The March of the Mormon Battalion, 226‑27 Yurtinus, A Ram in the Thicket, 324‑25; “The Journal of Nathaniel V. Jones,” Utah Historical Quarterly, 4:18; “Isaac C. Haight Journal,” typescript, 40
More efforts were made to ferry over the wagons. Brigham Young said he was tired of experimenting with ways to get the wagons over. A group of men was sent four miles downriver to make some canoes for a large ferryboat. Others were sent to get timber for a new raft. Brigham Young worked very hard with this detail to make a raft made from white pine and cottonwood. A Missouri company of ten wagons came to the crossing and they hired the pioneers to ferry them over for $1.50 per wagon, with a $5.00 bonus if they were taken over before evening.
Orson Pratt described the raft being constructed. “We made two large cottonwood canoes, and placing them parallel to each other, a few feet asunder, firmly pinned on cross pieces and flat slabs running lengthwise of the canoes, and having attached a rudder and oars, with a little iron work, we had a boat of sufficient strength to carry over the loaded wagons of the emigrants.”
William Clayton wrote about the day’s river crossings:
When they started over with Brother [Stephen] Goddard’s wagon the wind was blowing strong.25 James Craig and [William] Wordsworth were on the raft with poles and when they got nearly half way across Brother Craig’s pole stuck in the sand and threw him overboard.26 He swam back to shore and in spite of Brother Wordsworth’s exertions, the wind and current carried the raft about two miles down the river. It was finally landed by the help of the cutter and without accident. They have had three rafts working today, two of which they now work by oars which are proving to be far superior to poles in this strong current. At the close of day there were still a number of wagons on the south shore.
Wagons were scattered all over the north bank for about a mile. The “Revenue Cutter” filled partially with water and nearly sank during the day.
By evening, the group of men constructing twenty-five-foot dugout canoes returned with their task nearly complete.
The Sick Detachments and Mississippi Saints arrived at Fort Laramie. Some of the men wanted to head east to their families at Winter Quarters, but the plan was for them all to follow the pioneers. Amasa Lyman wrote a letter to Brigham Young: “I laid the instruction before them which had the effect of quelling the spirit of mutiny, and instead of leaving as they intended, they followed the counsel.”
Eliza R. Snow visited Parley P. Pratt. She sang a song of Zion to his family in tongues. Patty Sessions interpreted. Sister Snow wrote a poem for Mary Ann Angell Young, wife of Brigham Young, who was still in Winter Quarters. It included:
Mother of mothers! Queen of queens
For such thou truly art ‑‑
I pray the Lord to strengthen thee
And to console they heart.
From infancy thou hast been led
And guided by his hand
That thou in Zion’s courts may tread
And in thy station stand.
Thou’rt highly favor’d of the Lord
And thou art greatly blest;
Most glorious will be thy reward
In peace & joy & rest
Altho’ thou hast been call’d to share
In sorrow and distress
That thou thro’ suff’ring might prepare
The broken heart to bless,
Thou wilt arise o’er ev’ry ill ‑‑
O’er ev’ry weakness too
For God will in thy path distil
His grace like morning dew
Hosea Stout sent word to the Elkhorn camp that he decided to turn down his appointment as captain of the guard and not go with the second pioneer company. He wrote that he did not think it was fair to ask him to make this sacrifice after he had been neglected so long. “Thus my expedition west was brought to a close.” He heard much discussion and surprise from others at his decision to reject the order from the Apostles.
As many of the Saints left Winter Quarters for the west, they would sell their homes to those who were staying behind. Louisa Barnes Pratt, wife of missionary Addison Pratt, wrote:
I have determined to add one more to my many efforts to buy me a dwelling above ground. Some were beginning to go to the mountains with their families. I found a cabin to be sold for five dollars. I made the bargain and moved into it. I thought in that I could keep dry in a rain storm, but I was mistaken. The first thunder shower I caught a barrel of water in my fireplace. I went about to making repairs.
Henry Standage recorded: “Many suffering from colds. No rain in this country. Heavy dews, very warm at noontimes and very cold nights especially for June. High winds generally from the North till night. Many horses purchased daily by the Battalion, all preparing to go home.”
Robert S. Bliss wrote: “One month more & we hope to be on our way to our beloved famileys & the Church.”
Appleton Milo Harmon Goes West, 34; Watson, ed., The Orson Pratt Journals, 426; William Clayton’s Journal, 238‑40; Kenney, ed., Wilford Woodruff’s Journal, 3:206; Bagley, ed., The Pioneer Camp of the Saints, 194; The Personal Writings of Eliza Roxcy Snow, 178‑79; Brooks, ed., On the Mormon Frontier, 1:261; Journal of Henry Standage in Golder, The March of the Mormon Battalion, 227; “The Journal of Robert S. Bliss,” Utah Historical Quarterly, 95; “Norton Jacob Journal,” typescript, 91; “Reminiscences of Louisa Barnes Pratt,” in Madsen, Journey to Zion, 235
Thomas Bullock observed: “The mosquitoes have been very plaguy the past night; they are more numerous there than any other place on our route.”
Wilford Woodruff wrote: “Early this morning we swam our horses over the river. One mule came near drowning by being tangled in a rope but the curant carried him ashore & he made a live of it. The men went to work to finish their ferry boat while the men continued to cross waggons on the raft.” The rest of the pioneer’s horses were left over on the other side because the brethren thought that it was too cold and the wind was blowing too strong to risk crossing them on this day. The men suffered greatly working in the cold water.
The last of the pioneer wagons were ferried over by 2 p.m. All the wagons were once again moved into a circle. Phinehas Young’s wagon was the exception. It did not return from the mountains until the evening.
They then started to ferry over wagons for two emigration companies for $1.50 per wagon. William Clayton wrote about the great opportunity to earn some provisions.
Two companies of the Missourians had arrived and made application to be set over at a dollar and a half a load. When the contract was made with the first company to be sent across as soon as our wagons were over, the other company of ten wagons offered to pay the brethren 50¢ per man extra if they would set them over first, making $5.00 over the stated price for ferryage being ten of the brethren to work at it. Colonel Rockwood had made a contract to the above effect with the first company and did not like to break it. However, he received a hint that this was Colonel Markham’s day for the use of the boat and consequently Colonel Markham had a right to take the last offer if he chose. He took the hint and they went to work forthwith at a dollar and a half a wagon in provisions at Missouri prices and 50¢ extra per man, in what they preferred for themselves.
The ferry operation continued all night and by daylight the last of the Missouri companies had been ferried over.
Charles C. Rich sent a note back to John Scott at Winter Quarters ordering him to send the cannon “as the whole camp is waiting.” He also wrote to Alpheus Cutler, the presiding member of the High Council, requesting that he help Brother Scott send forward the cannon, boat, and Nauvoo temple bell with the second pioneer company.
Ira Eldredge’s fifty, part of the Daniel Spencer Company officially started their pioneer trek, leaving the Elkhorn River. The Eldredge fifty consisted of 76 wagons and 177 people. The captains of tens were Isaac C. Haight, Hector Haight, Samuel Ensign, Erastus Bingham, and George Boyes.27
Joseph Horne’s fifty, part of the Edward Hunter Company also officially started their pioneer trek. The Horne fifty (also known as the John Taylor company) consisted of 72 wagons and 197 people. The captains of tens were Ariah C. Brower, Abraham Hoagland, Archibald Gardner, William Taylor, and Thomas Orr Sr.28
Samuel Russell’s fifty, part of the Abraham O. Smoot’s Company also officially started their pioneer trek. The Russell fifty consisted of 95 people. The captains of tens were Lauren H. Roundy, Amasa Russell, and Farnum Kinyon.29
Walter and Maria Wilcox visited Mary Richards to say good‑bye. They were leaving for Missouri where they would be spending the summer and maybe the winter.
The soldiers camped at Bear Creek at Johnson’s Ranch, the last house that they expected to see. They were forty miles north of Sutter’s Fort.
Addison Pratt decided to travel to the New Hope settlement on the Stanislaus River to help harvest nearly three hundred acres of wheat. He traveled by boat in the bay with some of the Brooklyn Saints, George K. Winner, Richard Knowles, Isaac Goodwin, and Samuel Ladd. They spent the night at Samples Ferry, in the straits of Carquinez. The ferry was run by one of the Brooklyn brethren, Abram Combs.
John Allen, the disgraced soldier who was drummed out of town, was recaptured near the city and put back in jail. He later escaped by digging a hole through the adobe wall. In the evening, Colonel Stevenson started efforts to convince the battalion to reenlist. He read an order calling for volunteers to reenlist for six more months. No one stepped forward to sign. The army was worried that Los Angeles would not have enough men to properly guard the post. The building of the fort was progressing slowly. Henry Standage commented:
They cannot in reason expect us to enlist again and especially when they know the treatment we have received, receiving no pay to go home and no ammunition to be given to us with our guns &c. and no pay for our back rations, although we have paid out much money on the road when our rations were kept back or in other words when the Col might have procured full rations at Govt. expense. But hard has been our fare as soldiers.
Elder Lyman O. Littlefield, still in Kirtland, was visited by former apostle, William McLellin. Elder Littlefield wrote: “He commenced upon me in relation to the Church, its authority, its transgressions, etc. I argued in defense until 12 o’clock at night.”
Arrington, Charles C. Rich, 114; “Journal of Albert P. Rockwood,” typescript, BYU, 55; Kenney, ed., Wilford Woodruff’s Journal, 3:206; “Luke S. Johnson Journal,” typescript, BYU, 12; Howard Egan Diary, Pioneering the West, 75; William Clayton’s Journal, 240‑41; “Lyman Littlefield Reminiscences (1888),” 192‑93; Bagley, ed., The Pioneer Camp of the Saints, 194; Black, Pioneers of 1847: A Sesquicentennial Remembrance; Journal of Henry Standage in Golder, The March of the Mormon Battalion, 227; “The Journal of Nathaniel V. Jones,” Utah Historical Quarterly, 4:19; Ellsworth, ed., The Journals of Addison Pratt, 331; Ward, ed., Winter Quarters, 148
The horses were brought across the river in the morning. William Clayton went fishing at a creek and brought back sixty fish. Thomas Bullock had to spend the morning hunting for two stray cattle. He became very wet and cold wading through the high grass for five or six miles.
More Missouri emigrants arrived and employed the pioneers to ferry them across. The new ferryboat, named The Black Hills was launched. Appleton Harmon wrote: “I worked on the ferryboat and got it launched about 1 p.m. and crossed a loaded wagon on it. It worked well and was built of two dugouts twenty feet long and ties across. They were placed six feet apart and run plank lengthwise.”
While the wagons were being ferried over, the captain of the Missouri company invited some of the men for breakfast. Thomas Bullock commented: “Eating a good breakfast from Woman’s Cooking is a remembrance of past times & renews the desire for such times to come again.”
The ferry ran all afternoon with great success. Brigham Young called together those who were appointed to stay behind and operate the ferry until the second company arrived. They were Thomas Grover, Luke S. Johnson, John S. Higbee, Francis M. Pomeroy, William Empey, James Davenport, Appleton M. Harmon, Benjamin F. Stewart, and Edmund Ellsworth. In the evening, the Twelve went off some distance from camp and read to these brethren formal written instructions that included:
You are about to stop at this place for a little season, for the purpose of passing emigrants over the river and assisting the Saints, we have thought fit to appoint Thomas Grover Superintendent of the Ferry, and of your company. If you approve, we want you to agree that you will follow his council implicitly and without gainsaying and we desire that you should be agreed in all your operations, acting in concert, keeping together continually and not scattering to hunt.
As your leisure, put yourselves up a comfortable room that will afford yourselves and horses protection against the Indians should a war party pass this way. But, first of all, see that your boats are properly secured by fastening raw hides over the tops of the canoes or some better process. Complete the landings, and be careful of lives and property of all you labor for, remembering that you are responsible for all accidents through your carelessness or negligence and that you retain not that which belongs to the traveler.
For one family wagon, you will charge $1.50, payment in flour and provisions at stated prices or $3.00 in cash. You had better take young stock at a fair valuation instead of cash and a team if you should want the same to remove.
Should emigration cease before our brethren arrive, cache your effects and return to Laramie and wait their arrival, and come on with them to the place of location. . . . When our emigration companies arrive if the river is fordable, ferry them and let them who are able pay a reasonable price. The council of their camp will decide who are able to pay.
Eric Glines wanted to stay behind even though he had not been appointed. The brethren wanted Brother Glines to continue on with the pioneer company but said he might do as he pleased. Wilford Woodruff wrote: “He did not manifest a good spirit & Br Young reproved him.” Brigham Young launched into a sermon. He said that when he gave a man counsel, it should not be rejected, or many arguments should not be presented to alter the counsel. “When a man did it, I will turn on my heal & leave him.”30
He said that the young Elders were eternally grasping after something ahead of them, which belonged to others instead of seeking to bring up those who were behind them. He said that the way that the young Elders could enlarge their dominions and get power was to go to the world and preach the gospel, and then they would bring their converts with them to the house of the Lord.
The Lord is determined to establish his kingdom in the last days & He will have a faithful diligent and obedient people and He chastises the Saints to keep them humble and make them do their duty. If we had not been mobbed and afflicted but always been in prosperity, we should have been lifted up in pride of our hearts and not gathered together and build up Zion as we ought to have done, so that these trials will work together for our good.
The provisions obtained thus far from the Missouri companies were distributed. They had received enough goods for about twenty‑three days. They estimated that they had received about $400 worth of goods at Fort Laramie prices.
Eliza R. Snow attended a meeting at the Beech’s wagon. Most of the Parley P. Pratt family was there. She wrote that they had “a refreshing time.”
George B. Wallace gave orders for his fifty to move one mile from the river, where they camped for the night. His fifty were part of the Abraham O. Smoot company. The Wallace company consisted of 223 people. The captains of tens were James Smith, Samuel Rolfe, Joseph Mount, John Nebeker, and Samuel Turnbow.31
George Washington Hill, part of this fifty, later recalled the start of this journey:
It was amusing to see us with our oxen, cows and two-year-olds all yoked up, and in some instances the yearlings, as we thought that even yearlings could pull something, following the tracks the pioneers had made through the illimitable prairie, going we knew not where, but determined to seek an asylum where Christian charity would never come, notwithstanding our destitute condition. We left, indeed, without a regret.
Near one of the encampments that night, a body of a dead man was found which had been picked by wolves. They found a letter in his pocket that indicated he was the “bearer of dispatches” for the Indian Agent from St. Louis. It was believed that he had been killed by Indians.
The ground was saturated from the recent rains. The men were busy getting puncheon timber, hauling brick, and finishing rooms in the houses. Brother Colby came up from Winter Quarters and reported that the bridge across Turkey Creek had been washed away because of high waters.
The detachment traveled twenty‑five miles through the mountains, through thick woods. They noticed a grave on the way.
A detail of men returned from the mountains with two liberty poles, fifty feet long.
William McLellin returned in the morning before breakfast to continue “bashing” against Elder Lyman O. Littlefield. His host even joined in the arguments against him. Elder Littlefield wrote: “I bore my testimony faithfully which made no apparent impression, but I felt that I had done my duty towards them.”
Cook, Joseph C. Kingsbury, 116; Appleton Milo Harmon Goes West, 34‑5; Howard Egan Diary, Pioneering the West, 75‑77; “Luke S. Johnson Journal,” typescript, BYU, 13; Kenney, ed., Wilford Woodruff’s Journal, 3:207‑08; The Personal Writings of Eliza Roxcy Snow, 179; Bagley, ed., The Pioneer Camp of the Saints, 195; “The Journal of Nathaniel V. Jones,” Utah Historical Quarterly, 4:19; Kelly, ed., Journals of John D. Lee, 178; Journal of Henry Standage in Golder, The March of the Mormon Battalion, 227; “Lyman Littlefield Reminiscences (1888),” 193; Black, Pioneers of 1847: A Sesquicentennial Remembrance; “The History and Journal of Jesse W. Crosby,” typescript, BYU, 33; “Incidents in the Life of George Washington Hill,” in Madsen, Journey to Zion, 362
After waking up to a heavy frost, the pioneer company finally moved on at 7:50 a.m., traveling on the north side of the North Platte River. They passed red buttes and “many rough picturesque sceneries.” They ascended a steep mile‑long bluff that presented a very nice view. The road down on the other side was crooked and rough.
After traveling twelve miles, they stopped for the noon rest near a spring, which was the first water found since the ferry crossing. After a good rest, they continued on. William Clayton wrote:
At the distance of eight miles from the spring there is a steep descent from a bluff and at the foot there is a high ridge of sharp pointed rocks running parallel with the road for near a quarter of a mile, leaving only sufficient space for wagons to pass. At the south point there is a very large rock lying close to where the road makes a bend, making it somewhat difficult to get by without striking it. The road is also very rough with cobble stones.
With well‑rested animals, they were able to travel a total of twenty‑one and a half miles this day, a new record for the longest distance traveled in one day since leaving Winter Quarters. William Clayton mentioned: “It was remarked by several that their stock had fattened so much while stopping at the ferry, they hardly knew them.” They camped near a “small miry stinking crick around which there was many mire holes of the worst sort.” Wilford Woodruff wrote: “Our camping place for the night was the most wretched of any ground we have found on the way. President Young thought it might properly be called Hell gate.” The water tasted terrible. The cattle would drink a little but would then stop. They were cautious, because they knew that they were near a poison spring which would kill cattle if they took a drink. William Clayton added: “The mosquitoes are very bad indeed at this place which adds to the loathsome, solitary scenery around.” The cattle were tied up to keep them from the mire, but three still became stuck.
The hunters brought in a buffalo and several antelope. There was no fuel for fires, except for sage roots. Lewis Myers, the hunter for the Mississippi Saints killed two buffalo, but took only the tallow and tongues and left rest on the ground to rot. About 9 p.m. an alarm was sounded that an ox had mired in the slough. It was almost totally sunk but soon was pulled out.
Heber C. Kimball and George A. Smith reported when they were looking for the night’s camp, that they saw six men suddenly spring up out of the grass with blankets like Indians, and then they rode away. The brethren followed them for a short distance until one of the “Indians” signalled them to stop coming. The brethren ignored the signal and continued on. Finally, the “Indians” galloped off at full speed. The brethren were convinced that the men were Missourians and were using this trick to scare the brethren away from their camp. Howard Egan wrote, “It is considered an old Missouri trick and an insult to our camp, and if they undertake to play Indian games, they might meet with Indian treatment.”
The ferry workers were very busy. They ferried across sixteen wagons for the emigrants and then had dinner with them. James Davenport did some blacksmithing for them. They learned that a young man, Wesley Tustin had drowned about five miles down the river while swimming a horse across. His body was not found.
The ferrymen gathered their things together and prepared for their first night at the ferry without the rest of the pioneers. Including Eric Glines, there were ten men with three wagons, three horses, one mule, three heifers, and one bull, and five dogs. As of this date, the pioneers had ferried across seventy‑five Mormon wagons and sixty‑four for Oregon emigrants.
The George Wallace company rolled out of their camp at 9 a.m., and reached the encampment at the Platte River at 5 p.m. They joined another company of fifty to form their first wagon ring. All the livestock were tied inside the circle except for cattle which were sent out to graze. Joseph Kingsbury commented: “We already see the good of this way of encamping . . . if only every man will do his duty.”
The Joseph B. Noble fifty moved out. They were part of the Jedediah M. Grant Company. The Noble fifty consisted of 171 people. The captains of tens were: Asahel A. Lathrop, Robert Peirce, Hazen Kimball, Amos Neff, and Josiah Miller.32
They traveled fifteen miles to the encampment at the Platte River. They saw that another company had raised a Liberty Pole with a white flag which could be seen for miles.
The Willard Snow fifty also moved out. They were also part of the Jedediah M. Grant Company. The Snow fifty consisted of 160 people. The captains of tens were: John Vance, Thomas Thurston, Jacob Gates, and Simpson D. Huffaker.33
The Jacob Foutz fifty moved out. They were part of the Edward Hunter Company. The Foutz fifty consisted of 59 wagons and 155 people. The captains of tens were: Ariah C. Brower, Alva Keller, Vinson Shurtliff, Daniel M. Thomas, and John Lowry.34
Perrigrine Sessions also moved his fifty out during the afternoon. His fifty (also known as the Parley P. Pratt company) were part of the Daniel Spencer Company. The Sessions company consisted of 75 wagons and 185 people. The captains of tens were: Elijah F. Sheets, John Van Cott, Elijah K. Fuller, William Leffingwell, and Asa Barton.35
As the company traveled, they came across the body found the day before by others. Patty Sessions wrote: “Pass[ed] a dead body supposed to be killed by the Indians. The wolves had eat him considerably. His buttons were cut off and the legs of his pantaloons.”
By the end of the day, a total of about five hundred and seventy‑five wagons from Winter Quarters had crossed the river.
Terrible tragedy struck this day. Alfred Lambson and Jacob Weatherby were driving a team of oxen back toward Winter Quarters as couriers when three Indians arose from the grass and halted the wagon about eight miles from the Elkhorn. Two sisters, Almira Johnson and Nancy Chamberlain, were also in the wagon. Brother Weatherby negotiated with the Indians to let them pass, but the Indians, who were armed, cocked their guns. The two brethren grabbed the guns and there was a struggle. The third Indian, about fifteen feet away, fired at Brother Weatherly, severely wounding him. The Indians ran away. The oxen became frightened and Sister Chamberlain applied the whip on them, driving off to the Elkhorn, leaving the rest behind. Brother Lambson ran off to get help at Winter Quarters while Sister Johnson cared for the wounded Brother Weatherby. Brother Lambson soon met Lot Cutler and Bishop Newel K. Whitney on the road. They quickly rode to the site of the tragedy and took Brother Weatherby to Elkhorn.
Charles C. Rich stayed at the Elkhorn with his company to wait for the arrival of the artillery from Winter Quarters. At dusk, Newel K. Whitney and Alpheus Cutler brought in the wounded Jacob Weatherby, who was taken into the Rich tent. Sarah Rich wrote: “We all could see that he would not live, so we fixed him a bed in our tent and did all we could to ease his pain. He suffered awful pain through the night.”
Brothers Martin, Houston, Tuttle, and George W. Hickerson departed for Winter Quarters to get provisions. They had to take a new route on a divide because the bridge over Turkey Creek had been washed out. Isaac Morley arrived in the afternoon and told the settlement that he had been to the Elkhorn River and had seen about fifteen wagons belonging to the second pioneer company, ready to leave for the mountains.
A daughter, Tryphenia Roseltha Perry, was born to Stephen C. and Anna Hulett Perry.36
There was some worry amount the men that the Colonel might invoke some special power to force the battalion into serving six more months.
Robert S. Bliss hoisted a signal flag to notify the town that a ship had been spotted outside the harbor. It was anchored, waiting for a favorable wind to come into port. The men expected that their new colonel was probably on the ship.
Arrington, Charles C. Rich, 114; “Journal of Albert P. Rockwood,” typescript, BYU, 55‑6; “Diary of Lorenzo Dow Young,” Utah Historical Quarterly, 14:161; Kenney, ed., Wilford Woodruff’s Journal, 3:208; “Erastus Snow Journal Excerpts,” Improvement Era 15:167; William Clayton’s Journal, 242‑45; Appleton Milo Harmon Goes West, 36; Cook, Joseph C. Kingsbury, 116; Deseret News 1997‑98 Church Almanac, 120; “Sarah Rich Autobiography,” typescript, BYU, 70; The Personal Writings of Eliza Roxcy Snow, 179; Howard Egan Diary, Pioneering the West, 79; “The Journal of Robert S. Bliss,” Utah Historical Quarterly, 4:95; Journal of Henry Standage in Golder, The March of the Mormon Battalion, 228; Kelly, ed., Journals of John D. Lee, 178‑79; Black, Pioneers of 1847: A Sesquicentennial Remembrance; Smart, ed., Mormon Midwife, 85
Even though it was Sunday, the pioneers had to move away from their miserable camp ground to find better water and to get the cattle away from the mud holes. They traveled about four miles and stopped for breakfast by a clear stream with good grass. At 8 a.m., the temperature was a warm sixty‑one degrees.
After breakfast, they traveled nine miles, crossing over a few small streams and halted for the noon rest at Willow Springs. It was two feet wide, ten inches deep, with water cold as ice. In the afternoon they crossed a rapid stream, ten-foot-wide Greasewood Creek,37 and camped on this stream away from the road. They traveled a total of twenty and one half miles.
Wilford Woodruff and John Brown had been sent by Brigham Young in the morning to go scout the road ahead and did not return in the evening. There was great worry in the camp about their safety. They blew the bugle, watched for the men until midnight, and finally fired the cannon.
Wilford Woodruff and George A. Smith had traveled in the morning to the head waters of Willow Spring. They found a doctor there who was taking care of a sick family from Missouri. Elder Smith stayed at the springs to wait for the wagons to arrive, while Elder Woodruff rode on alone. Soon, John Brown joined him and they rode together to a stream about ten miles ahead and then rested their horses to wait for the pioneers. By 4 p.m., the company had still not arrived. They saw two men on horses in the distance and signaled to them, but the men supposed they might be Indians and went away. Elder Woodruff caught up with the men, who were hunters for a Missouri company. These men had not seen the rest of the pioneers.
Elder Woodruff wrote: “I then concluded our camp had stopped at the Willow Springs, so Captain Smith, who was the leader of the Mo Company invited us to go on & camp with them for the night as they did not expect to go but a few miles further.” They accepted the invitation. But the Missouri company ended up traveling many more miles and camped near Independence Rock, by the Sweetwater River. They ended up about twelve miles ahead of the pioneers. Elder Woodruff recorded: “I found a great difference between the Missouri emigrant companies & our own. For while the men, women & children were all cursing, swearing, quarrelling, scolding, finding fault with each other & other companies, there was nothing of the kind allowed or practiced in our own camp.”
Thomas Grover asked William Empey and Benjamin F. Stewart to travel with a wagon and four horses back to Deer Creek, twenty‑eight miles, to retrieve some of the coal that had been discovered by the pioneers while camping at that location. William Empey recorded that he did not really want to go because of the dangers from the Indians, but he obeyed his leader and left. They camped for the night two miles from Deer Creek.
Francis M. Pomeroy and Eric Glines were sent a few miles downriver to see if a boat there could be charted to float down to Fort Laramie.38 They later returned and reported that the boat was on the other side of the river with some men waiting for another company. James Davenport, the company blacksmith, shod three oxen and several horses for some emigrants who had been left behind because one of their women was sick.
Amasa Lyman spoke sternly to the detachments of the battalion and the Mississippi Saints. He urged the brethren “to leave off our folly and be men of God.” Joel Terrel noted in his journal that Elder Lyman gave them “a good whipping.” Even Captain James Brown was affected enough to confess some of his faults.
Word reached the companies at the Platte River that Jacob Weatherby had been attacked by Indians.
George Wallace tightened the guard in his fifty. A general Sabbath meeting was held for the hundreds of pioneers.
Jacob Weatherby died in the morning from his wound. He was the first person to die in any pioneer company that had left Winter Quarters, and it was the result of an Indian attack. Sarah Rich recorded:
He was conscious until a few minutes before his death, then he dropped off like one going to sleep. As the rest of the company had gone on, they had to bury Brother Wetherby that night. Our folks had raised a Liberty Pole, and he was laid to rest with a few words from C. C. Rich, and prayer by him. He was buried just at dark as we were in fear of Indians, and had to keep out guards all night.
Patty Sessions further explained that they had initially planned to bury Brother Weatherby back at Winter Quarters, “but he mortified and smelt so bad they buried him in a buffaloe robe near the liberty pole.”
The cannon, boat, and Nauvoo Temple bell arrived from Winter Quarters at 11 a.m.
A public Sabbath meeting was held. Elder Orson Hyde, the only remaining member of the Twelve at Winter Quarters spoke to the Saints. He firmly stated that he wanted his word to be law and for his counsel to be followed. “If you would rather have any other one to lead you, you may appoint who ever you please.” The congregation voted to sustain Elder Hyde as the presiding authority. He then spoke out against counterfeiters and thieves. He asked all those who knew anything about such evils among the Saints to come forth and tell him. He knew that some men had taken secret oaths to protect their evil doings, but he stated that they were released from all such unworthy oaths.
Elder Hyde condemned the swearing. He had heard children using the name of the Lord in vain on the streets of the city and had even heard a man who had received his temple ordinances do such an evil thing. He asked the High Council to deal with the man and even disfellowship him from the Church if he continued. Elder Hyde encouraged the Saints to hold schools for their children, where they would learn to behave themselves since their parents evidently could not teach them correctly. His words caused quite a stir and a few people confessed their sins.
A council meeting was held in the evening. Two trials were held regarding cattle recently taken from the corn field. Hosea Stout attended and was criticized for not going with the pioneers as ordered. Isaac Morley reproved him severely. He said he would not have rejected such a call “for kingdoms.” Brother Stout was finally permitted to speak. He spoke his feelings plainly and criticized the Church Leaders for the way they had recently treated him and for not following Brigham Young’s orders for the organization of the companies. The brethren there counseled together and Orson Hyde proposed that Hosea Stout take ten men as a guard and still overtake the second pioneer camp. Brother Stout agreed to do this, but they changed their minds and it was thought best to keep Brother Stout at Winter Quarters.
Robert Crookston and Ann Welch were married. Josina Glasgow, age twenty-five, died. She was the wife of Samuel Glasgow.
John D. Lee spoke to a gathering of Saints at Winter Quarters on the subject of God’s dealings with his people. Other speakers were Absalom P. Free, Levi Stewart, J. Allen, James Busby and others. Later, Simeon A. Dunn and Martin returned from Winter Quarters and brought news the mill was clear again. They also reported about the shooting of Jacob Weatherby.
Twins, Ada Adelia and Ida Francelia Simons were born to Orrawell and Martha Dixon Simons.39
The battalion members arrived at Bear Valley and found the cabin that had been used just four months earlier during the rescue of the Donner‑Reed party, stranded and starving up in the mountains. The soldiers found many things left in the cabin.40
Addison Pratt was delayed on his journey to the New Hope settlement because he had become sick from drinking a mixture of fresh water and sea water. He shoved off again in his boat, passed through the Suisun Bay, and entered the mouth of the San Joaquin River. He wrote:
We commenced ascending the river against a strong current. We had not proceeded far before one of the crew cried out, “There is an elk, crossing the river!!” I look’d ahead and saw what I thought to be at first sight a bunch of brush afloat, but on closer examination, found it to be a pair of elk horns, the heads and ears were to be seen also, but the rest of him was completely under water. We made all speed possible with the boat, but he had got so much the start, and being a good swimmer reach’d the opposite shore before we got within rifle shot of him, and he was soon out of sight in the tulies.
David Pettigrew and Levi Hancock addressed the brethren in a Sunday meeting. Henry Standage wrote: “The brethren truly rejoicing to think that the hour of redemption draweth nigh (15th of July).”
The ship Loo‑Choo came into port. It was a merchant ship with many interesting articles. Some of the men were able to go on board to look around and have dinner. Battalion members Stephen St. John and Brother Averett arrived from Los Angeles.
Elder Thomas Smith was arrested and imprisoned at Covington, Warwickshire, England, for casting out evil spirits. After examination, he and Richard Currell, the subject of administration, were dismissed. The court found no cause of action.
Yurtinus, A Ram in the Thicket, 324; Appleton Milo Harmon Goes West, 36; Watson, ed., The Orson Pratt Journals, 427‑28; Autobiography of John Brown, 76; Kenney, ed., Wilford Woodruff’s Journal, 3:209‑10; “The Journal of William Empey,” Annals of Wyoming, 21:135; “Sarah Rich Autobiography,” typescript, BYU, 70; Arrington, Charles C. Rich, 114; Cook, Joseph C. Kingsbury, 116; Bagley, ed., The Pioneer Camp of the Saints, 197; Brooks, ed., On the Mormon Frontier, 1:261‑62; Ward, ed., Winter Quarters, 148‑49; Johnson, ed., “Unfortunate Emigrants,” 226; “The Journal of Nathaniel V. Jones,” Utah Historical Quarterly, 4:19; Kelly, ed., Journals of John D. Lee, 178‑79; Howard Egan Diary, Pioneering the West, 79; “The Journal of Robert S. Bliss,” Utah Historical Quarterly, 4:96; Journal of Henry Standage in Golder, The March of the Mormon Battalion, 228; Ellsworth, ed., The Journals of Addison Pratt, 321; Smart, ed., Mormon Midwife, 86
Wilford Woodruff and John Brown arose early, ate breakfast with the Missouri company, and then rode all the way around Independence Rock which was about 3/4 mile.41 Elder Woodruff wrote: “We examined the many names & lists of names of trappers, traders, travellers, & emigrants which are painted upon these rocks. Nearly all the names were put on with red, black & yellow paint. Some had washed out & defaced. The greatest number was put on within a few years. Some of them were quite plain of about 30 years standing.” The brethren staked down their horses and climbed the rock. About halfway up, they found an opening or cavern that could fit about 30 or 40 people.
A rock weighing about three tons sat on the highest point. The brethren got on top of this rock and offered prayers. They prayed for President Young, the Twelve, all the pioneer camp, and the whole camp of Israel. They also prayed for their wives and children, the families of the Mormon Battalion, and all the churches abroad. They asked the Lord to hasten the building up of Zion. Elder Woodruff wrote: “while offering up our prayers, the spirit of the Lord descended upon us and we truly felt to rejoice.” While they were praying, the Missourians were burying a woman by the name of Rachel Morgan who they believed had been poisoned by cooking in new copper pans. Two other family members had died earlier.
As the brethren descended, Elder Woodruff had the historical thought that he was the first Latter‑day Saints to climb the rock and offer prayers. They could see the pioneer camp heading toward Independence Rock and expected that they would spend the noon rest there. They mounted their horses and rode to the top of a high bluff where they could see the pioneer camp in motion. They rode all the way to Devil’s Gate and then hurried back to Independence Rock to greet the pioneers.
Porter Rockwell left in the morning to go hunt for the missing brethren. After the pioneers traveled about three miles, they came to a swampy area with several salty ponds with an unpleasant odor. They gathered up bushels of saleratus.42 William Clayton explained: “The beds of saleratus smell like lime, but the saleratus itself is said to raise bread equal to the best bought in eastern markets. Lorenzo Young gathered a pail full in a short time with a view to test its qualities. Large quantities may be gathered in a short time and when pulverized it looks clean and nice.”
At noon, the pioneers reached the Sweetwater. The river was about 120 feet across and three feet deep at a place that used to be utilized as a place to ford the river. They stopped about a mile from Independence Rock. William Clayton wrote: “After we halted, Sister Harriet Young made some bread using the lake saleratus and when baked was pronounced to raise the bread and taste equal to the best she had ever used and it requires less of this than the common saleratus. A number of the brethren went back during the halt and filled their pails with it calculating to make use of it during our future journey.”
To the relief of the camp, they met up again with Wilford Woodruff and John Brown. Brigham Young met them a half a mile from Independence Rock. Wilford Woodruff explained why they had not returned the previous night. Brigham Young invited Elder Woodruff to go with him to the rock.
A few of the brethren went ahead to climb Independence Rock during the noon rest. Howard Egan described the rock:
It is a barren mass of bare granite, more so than any others in the region, and is probably 400 yards long and 80 yards wide, and about 100 yard perpendicular height. The ascent is very difficult all around, but the southwest corner appears to be the easiest to ascend. There are hundreds of persons who have visited it and painted their names there with different colored paint, both male and female.43
Albert P. Rockwood said it was shaped like an “oblong loaf of bread.” William Clayton observed: “It is more difficult descending from the rock than to ascend it on account of its being hard and slippery and nothing to hang on, and a visitor has to be careful or he will arrive on the ground with bruised limbs.”
At 3 p.m., it was time to resume the journey. William Clayton put up a guide board that read: “To Fort John 175 3/4 miles. Pioneers, July 21st, 1847, W.R.” After they traveled one mile beyond Independence Rock, they crossed the Sweetwater without difficulty. They continued on and in four and a half miles were across from Devil’s Gate which was a little west of the road. Erastus Snow described Devil’s Gate as “an aperture in the mountains or chasm through which the river forces itself: It is about one hundred feet wide with perpendicular rocks on either side.” The road passed between two high ridges of granite rocks. After crossing a difficult muddy creek, they established the next encampment spot by the river.44
Howard Egan recorded:
I went to view the Devil’s Gate, and while ascending the rocks, I fell in with some brethren, and we went up in company. Where we arrived at the top of the east rock we found it perpendicular. The river runs between two high rocky ridges, which were measured by Brother Pratt and found to be 399 feet 6 1/ 2 inches high and about 200 yards long. . . . It has truly a romantic appearance, and the view over the surrounding country appear spotted with snow.
Erastus Snow added, “I followed a foot path on the brink of the river, about half a mile until I was directly under the highest point of rocks where the river, roaring furiously among the huge rocks, filled its narrow channel, and compelled me to retreat by the way I came.”
William Clayton observed:
The river has a channel of about three rods in width through this pass which increases its swiftness and, dashing furiously against the huge fragments of rock which have fallen from the mountain, makes a roar which can be heard plainly in the camp. One of the brethren fired off his rifle at the foot of the rock and the report resembled much like that of a cannon. Others tumbled fragments of rocks from a projection at the entrance about 150 feet high, which made a very loud rumbling sound caused by the echoes.
The men decided to move the location of the ferry downriver. They loaded their things into the ferry boat and a leather skiff and started floating down the North Platte River. Luke Johnson and Edmund Ellsworth remained behind with two wagons. The ferry became stuck on two sand bars, but they freed it without difficulty. First, they approached some men working at the lower ferry location to see if they minded working side‑by‑side with the Mormon company, but they preferred to work alone. So the brethren continued to float downriver. After two miles, they landed on the south side in a grove of cottonwoods, close to the road which looked like a good location for the new ferry site. They unanimously agreed that this spot should be used. James Davenport set up his blacksmith shop and Eric Glines drove the cattle to the new location. They set up boards to break the wind and made their beds on the ground.
The huge pioneer company did not move out. They were waiting for Charles C. Rich to arrive with the artillery. Jesse W. Crosby wrote: “While in camp on the Platte our organization was completed; we keep up a guard by night and by day; our cattle are herded in campacts; the cattle of each 50 by themselves. We are numbered, me and boys from 12 years and upwards. The whole body being organized into hundreds, fifties, and tens.” The George Wallace fifty mourned the death of Jacob Weatherby.
Julia Ann Jamison Blackburn received her Patriarchal Blessing from Patriarch John Smith. She was the wife of Jehu Blackburn.
At sunrise, Charles C. Rich fired the cannon, put the raft on the Winter Quarters side of the river, and moved his company toward the west at 9 a.m. They reached the Platte River Camp by 4 p.m. There, final preparations were being made in this company for the long trek to the west. Drivers were obtained to help Brother Rich with the cannon, the skiff mounted on wheels, and the Nauvoo Bell.
The Charles C. Rich company consisted of 126 people. The captains of tens were: Ebenezer G. Cherry, James S. Holman, and Edward Stevenson.45
Emeline Grover Rich, sixteen-year-old wife of Charles C. Rich later wrote about the start of their journey. She explained that nine out of ten of the teamsters in her company were girls, women, or children.
I can but laugh now, when I look back upon that picturesque scene (for be it understood that I was one of those teamsters) and at the time it was no laughing matter but real, reality in the full sense of the term. Some there were who was equiped with big ox whip 6 or 8 feet long who I doubt not had never seen, much less handled a whip of this kind -- and knew not gee from haw perhaps had been raised tenderly and who owing to scarcity of male members in our camp had to take the whip in hand and drive their teams -- walking of course as they couldn’t drive their unbroke ox teams and sit in the wagon.
The detachment arrived at the headwaters of the Truckee River and found a small lake (Donner Lake) three miles long. They camped near the west end of the lake.
Addison Pratt and his companions from the Brooklyn Saints continued up the San Joaquin River, and arrived at Lynsey Lake. They sailed up it. Along the way they saw many ducks, cranes, otter, and a beaver. They landed at the top of the lake where some elk and wild cattle ran away from them. They made a fire, cooked supper, camped on the ground, and were bothered by mosquitoes and the howling of wolves all night.
Colonel Jonathan Stevenson and Lieutenant Stoneman arrived from Los Angeles. Robert S. Bliss visited the merchant ship, Barnstable and bought things for his journey home.
Elder Lyman O. Littlefield preached to a full house of interested listeners. He, along with Brothers Fox, Heath, and Wilcox, attended a conference of William M’Lellin’s followers, held at the Kirtland Temple. Elder Littlefield recorded: “I counted seventeen of his followers, all apostates from the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter‑day Saints. The speakers indulged in a tirade of abuse against the authorities of the Church.”
Howard Egan Diary, Pioneering the West, 80‑82; Arrington, Charles C. Rich, 114; “Journal of Albert P. Rockwood,” typescript, BYU, 56‑7; Kenney, ed., Wilford Woodruff’s Journal, 3:211‑13; “Erastus Snow Journal Excerpts,” Improvement Era 15:168; Appleton Milo Harmon Goes West, 36‑7; “The History and Journal of Jesse W. Crosby,” typescript, BYU; Cook, Joseph C. Kingsbury, 117; William Clayton’s Journal, 250‑56; “Lyman Littlefield Reminiscences (1888),” p.193; “Private Journal of Thomas Dunn,” typescript, 26; “The Journal of Robert S. Bliss,” Utah Historical Quarterly, 4:96; Bagley, ed., The Pioneer Camp of the Saints, 198‑99; Ellsworth, The Journals of Addison Pratt, 331; “The Journal of Nathaniel V. Jones,” Utah Historical Quarterly, 4:19; “Journal of Emeline Grover Rich and History of Grover Family Written by Emeline Grover Rich, 1890,” in Madsen, Journey to Zion, 169
The pioneer company traveled ten miles during the morning along the Sweetwater. Orson Pratt described their surroundings:
The valley of the Sweet Water varies in breadth from 5 to 8 or 10 miles, bounded upon the north and south by mountainous ridges, isolated hills, and ragged summits of massive granite, varying from 1200 to 2000 feet in height, those upon the southern boundary being the highest, and are partially covered with snow and well timbered with pine, while those on the north are entirely bare.
In the morning, Lorenzo Young broke an axletree, the first one that was broken since leaving Winter Quarters. Harriet Young wrote:
We got behind 3/4 of a mile and one of our axletree broke on the naked prairie without a stick of timber or anyone to help us. Mr. Young unharnessed one of his horses and started for the camp. I was alone; felt somewhat lonesome, but Bro. [William Henrie] came back and staid with me. We looked round the waggon to see if we could find anything to hold up the wheel. We found a piece of timber that was calculated for a whip stock. We unloaded the hind part of the waggon, raised it up, lashed on the timber and was harnessing Bro [Henrie’s] mare, when Mr. Young came back. He harnessed his horse and we started for camp. We had not proceeded far before we met Bros. Brigham, Woodruff, Benson and John Holman with his team.
While the camp stopped for the noon rest, an emigration company with ten wagons passed by. In the afternoon, the pioneers overtook and passed them. The emigrants informed the pioneers about the drowning of a young man at the lower ferry on the Platte after the pioneers left. They also said that they encountered a grizzly bear near Independence Rock.
They crossed several creeks and had a mishap at one of them, as described by William Clayton:
After traveling five and three quarters miles crossed a creek about six feet wide and a foot deep. The bank on each side is very steep and sandy, making it difficult for teams to get up. Here Starling Driggs had his harness broken to pieces by his horses springing suddenly when attempting to rise out of the creek. They cleared themselves from the wagon which was hauled up by a yoke of oxen so as not to hinder the rest from crossing.
After a total of 20 3/4 miles, they camped near the river, under a 200‑foot butte. Wilford Woodruff wrote: “Br Kimball & myself went to the top of it & looked down upon the camp & it looked heavenly. We offered up our prayers & the Spirit of the Lord rested upon us. We descended again to the Camp. The moon shone beautiful.”
The mosquitoes were very troublesome at sundown. Lewis Barney and Joseph Hancock each killed an antelope during the day. One company of Oregon emigrants was camping three miles ahead and another one was three miles behind. Charles Harper repaired Lorenzo Young’s wagon in the evening.46
The brethren worked on the new ferry site. William Empey and Benjamin Stewart returned from Dear Creek with a load of coal. They put up a sign at Deer Creek that read: “To the ferry twenty‑eight miles. The ferry good and safe. Manned by experienced men. Blacksmithing, horse and ox shoeing done. Also a wheelwright.” Brother Empey and Stewart went up to the former site to get two wagons. They returned in the evening. Eric Glines decided that he would go ahead and overtake the pioneer company and travel with them afterall. He admitted that he did wrong in staying behind and said he would make a confession to Brigham Young.
The massive second pioneer company began to roll west along the Platte River.
At 8 o’clock a.m. the signal for starting was given by ringing of the Temple bell. The order of traveling was as follows: The first fifty [Perrigrine Sessions] of the first hundred [Daniel Spencer] took the lead; the second fifty [Ira Eldredge] formed a second line to the right. Next to these two lines came Charles C. Rich’s guard company with the cannon, the skiff, and temple bell on the lead. Then the second hundred [Edward Hunter] formed on the right like the first two fifties, making five lines abreast. After them, the third hundred [Jedediah M. Grant] formed in the rear of the first hundred, and the fourth hundred [Abraham O. Smoot] in the rear of the second hundred.
They journeyed all day for about fifteen miles. They camped in their fifties and formed half moons by the river. They watered their cattle “in the river by the light of the moon and then took them out to feed a while.”
Sarah Rich wrote:
We had to place our strong guards at night, so you can judge the feeling of women and children traveling through an Indian country, not knowing what moment we might be attacked, by wild savages, and not very strong in number of men, for there were more women and children than men in our camp. We realized that we must be humble and prayerful, and put our trust in the Lord. It was through His mercy and care that the people on this dangerous journey were saved. We prayed to the Lord in faith, and He answered our prayers; for He will hear those that trust in Him and obey his laws as given through his prophets.
Hosea Stout was called to attend a High Council meeting in the evening to consider a letter received from Orson Hyde stating that they should make a demand on Indian Agent, Robert Mitchell to apprehend the Omaha Indian that shot Jacob Weatherby. Brother Hyde asked that one hundred men be raised at Council Point and fifty at Winter Quarters. These men should be put under the command of Hosea Stout with the intention of making war on the Omahas if they would not give up the murderer, and also the one who killed the man who had been found near the Elkhorn River. Mr. Mitchell should make the demands on the Omahas. The High Council decided to follow Elder Hyde’s requests and ordered Hosea Stout to raise the company. Brother Stout immediately went to work.
The detachment came to the sad site where the Reeds suffered in cabins on the east end of Donner Lake. General Kearny called for a halt and detailed men to bury the bodies which had been buried in the snow, but were now exposed on the ground. It was very obvious that the poor, starving emigrants had resorted to cannibalism. They cleared out an old cellar, put the bones in it, and did their best to cover it up. Nathaniel V. Jones wrote “After we had buried the bones of the dead . . . we set fire to the cabin. I started about two in the afternoon came seven miles and camped. One mile above here there was another cabin and more dead bodies but the General did not order them buried. Matthew Caldwell recorded: “This was the most awful sight that my eyes were ever to behold. There was not a whole person that we could find.”
Addison Pratt started with Brother Isaac Goodwin on foot, to walk the sixteen miles remaining to the New Hope farm. They soon came upon a herd of antelope which “ran away with almost the speed of flight.” Brother Pratt wrote: “I had never seen one before, and I was delighted with their appearance.” Brother Goodwin shot one, skinned it, and hung the heavy meat in a large oak tree. As they continued on, they saw many elk horns on the ground. Brother Goodwin mentioned that he had seen as many as five hundred elk at one time on that prairie.
After they crossed the Lynsey Lake prairie, they came to the barren, sandy, Stanislaus Prairie. The day was hot and Brother Pratt became very thirsty. Since they were only half way, Brother Goodwin went on ahead to bring back water to the fatigued Brother Pratt. When Brother Pratt came within sight of a house at New Hope, he was greeted by Brother Goodwin with a milk jug and water. They were taken into the house of Thomas Tompkins, another Church member who made the voyage on the Brooklyn. As the sun set, “the musketoes began to gather in such multitudes that they seem’d to threaten a complete extraction of all our blood.” The mosquitoes kept them awake all night.
William Smith, the brother of the prophet, Joseph Smith, wrote a letter to Orson Hyde, pleading that he be allowed to be rebaptized into the Church and be restored to his former position as one of the Twelve Apostles: “I hope Brother Brigham will forgive me for I have said many hard things concerning him and yet I know him to be a man of God he shall never complain of me hereafter for I have decreed that my tounge shall no more speak evil of the ruler of my people.”47
Appleton Milo Harmon Goes West, 37; Watson, ed., The Orson Pratt Journals, 429; “Luke S. Johnson Journal,” typescript, BYU, 13; “Charles Harper Diary,” 27; “Erastus Snow Journal Excerpts,” Improvement Era 15:168; Kenney, ed., Wilford Woodruff’s Journal, 3:213‑14; “Diary of Lorenzo Dow Young,” Utah Historical Quarterly, 14:162; “Albert P. Rockwood Journal,” typescript, 57; Howard Egan Diary, Pioneering the West, 82‑3; William Clayton’s Journal, 246‑58; “Sarah Rich Autobiography,” typescript, BYU, 71; D. Michael Quinn, BYU Studies, 16:2:205; Cook, Joseph C. Kingsbury, 117; “The Journal of Nathaniel V. Jones,” Utah Historical Quarterly, 4:19; Brooks, ed., On the Mormon Frontier, 1:262‑63; Ellsworth, ed., The Journals of Addison Pratt, 332‑33; Ricketts, The Mormon Battalion, 164
The morning was pleasant and warm as the pioneers continued their journey at 6 a.m. They crossed a shallow stream and several miles later stopped to rest the animals on the bank of the Sweetwater. All morning they could see the rocky mountains covered with snow. Erastus Snow wrote:
This granite ridge, or chain of gray rock, which is almost entirely naked, still continues on our right, and running parallel on our left, at a distance from five to twenty miles, is another ridge of snow‑capped hills which seem to be chiefly covered with timber. In the distance, at the west of us, appears the towering heights of the Wind river chain of the Rocky Mountains, covered with immense patches of snow.
They passed by the grave of a Matilda Crowley who died on July 7, 1846. William Clayton wrote:
On reflecting afterward that some of the numerous emigrants who had probably started with a view to spend the remainder of their days in the wild Oregon, had fallen by the way and their remains had to be left by their friends far from the place of destination, I felt a renewed anxiety that the Lord will kindly preserve the lives of all my family, that they may be permitted to gather to the future home of the Saints, enjoy the society of the people of God for many years to come, and when their days are numbered that their remains may be deposited at the feet of the servants of God, rather than be left far away in a wild country. And oh, Lord, grant this sincere desire of thy servant in the name of Thy Son Jesus. Amen.
At 1:10 p.m., they continued on and after about seven more miles camped for the night at 6:20 p.m.48 Wilford Woodruff commented, “We had a very sandy dragging road all day.” They traveled on an alternate road rather than the main Oregon trail which crossed over the Sweetwater several times.
They camped between two Missouri companies, both a few miles away, and Burr Frost did some blacksmithing for them.
Eric Glines departed on a mule for the pioneer camp. He was ferried across the river. James Davenport did some blacksmithing for a Mr. Hiss who was working the ferry up the river. Four Frenchmen with six pack horses and an Indian woman arrived in the evening. They had come from Fort Laramie and reported that the Mormon Battalion soldiers from Pueblo had arrived and would be arriving in a few days.
The George Wallace fifty reached Shell Creek.49
The companies traveled two abreast, instead of five. The Joseph Noble Fifty camped a half mile behind John Taylor’s company and five miles behind Parley P. Pratt. Eliza R. Snow recorded: “Our place is very delightful ‑‑ a short grass which is a sweet treat for the herd overspreads an extensive plain ‑‑ the river forming almost a half circle, while rich clusters of trees are to be seen in every direction.”
Hosea Stout spent the day trying to gather men and horses for the war party against the Omahas. He was having trouble getting men to donate horses. He instructed the ferry operator, Brother Higbee, to no longer allow any horses to be taken across the river until enough had been raised for the expedition. This helped to motivate some men to lend their horses and selves to the cause.
A daughter, Olivia Alger, was born to John and Sarah Pulsipher Alger.
Addison Pratt started to help harvest the wheat. At noon he went to take a nap under an oak tree, which was the only rest he could find because of the terrible mosquito problem during the night. He described the wildlife:
The spring floods had drownded out a part of their wheat crop and had left innumerable stagnant pools where those musketoes bred. Had it not have been for the musketoes, I should have enjoyed myself well there, as there was an abundance of wild game, such as elk, antelope, deer, grisly bears, beaver, otter, racoons, wolves, foxes, wild‑cats, hares, skunks, a great variety of wildducks, and plenty of California quails, a variety of other animals too tedious to mention, besides a good supply of rattlesnakes, and in the rivers were an abundance of fish.
A detail working at the fort raised up a liberty pole.
Colonel Stevenson addressed the battalion company. Robert S. Bliss wrote: “Gave us the praise of being the best company in the Southern Division of California; the most inteligent & correct soldiers. Said we were universally esteemed & respected by the inhabitants & in short we had done more for California than any other people.” He then started efforts to reenlist the men for six more months. Captain Jesse Hunter supported the idea of reenlistment if the army would send them to Bear Valley or San Francisco after the six months were up. Twenty of the men agreed to reenlist. Other men wanted to wait until they received counsel from their priesthood leaders, Levi Hancock and David Pettigrew. With only twenty men signed up, more would be needed to be raised at Los Angeles. Jesse Hunter, William Hyde and Horace Alexander agreed to join Colonel Stevenson with recruiting efforts at Los Angeles. Colonel Stevenson wrote a letter to Colonel Mason and reported his frustration at reenlisting the Mormons. He reported that they were “entirely under the control of their leaders [Levi Hancock and David Pettigrew] who were the chief men; and but for them, at least three companies would have re‑enlisted.”
Our Pioneer Heritage, 6, p.279; Cook, Joseph C. Kingsbury, 117; Howard Egan Diary, Pioneering the West, 83‑4; “Albert P. Rockwood Journal,” 57; Wilford Woodruff’s, Journal, 3:214; “Erastus Snow Journal Excerpts,” Improvement Era 15:168; Appleton Milo Harmon Goes West, 37; “The Journal of William Empey,” Annals of Wyoming, 21:135; Bagley, ed., The Pioneer Camp of the Saints, 200; William Clayton’s Journal, 258; Brooks, ed., On the Mormon Frontier, 1:263; The Personal Writings of Eliza Roxcy Snow, 180; Journal of Henry Standage in Golder, The March of the Mormon Battalion, 228; “The Journal of Robert S. Bliss,” Utah Historical Quarterly, 4:96; Yurtinus, A Ram in the Thicket, 593; Bigler, The Gold Discovery Journal of Azariah Smith, 87; Ellsworth, ed., The Journals of Addison Pratt, 333‑34
The camp started their journey at 6 a.m. in order to stay ahead of the Missouri companies but discovered that these companies had left a half hour earlier. After about five miles, they reached Ice Springs, which was a boggy marsh. Albert P. Rockwood described these springs: “The spring was a muddy, sulfry, cold and black nasty water that woozed through the mire and formed a small crick below. About ten inches below the surface of the ground was a thick layer of ice about 18 inches thick. The water made from the ice is clear and pure. This I consider one of the greatest curiosities on our journey.” William Clayton added: “Some of the brethren had broken some pieces off which floated and I ate some of it which tasted sweet and pleasant.” Ponds with various minerals were found close by. Some of the pioneers filled cups full of salt that was very pure.
Norton Jacob wrote of the mountains: “The wind river chain of the rocky mountains which was discovered yesterday, but the shaded side toward us, shone dimly, but now stands forth in all the noon day brilliancy of a summer sun and robed in full winter costume, presents a scene majestic, grand, and imposing. The eternal snows lifted up on those angular peaks towards heaven an offering from earth to heaven’s king.”
They skipped the noon halt because the country was so barren and sandy. Three Missouri companies traveled close by all day. The pioneers camped on the banks of the Sweetwater, near some patches of willows. The teams were exhausted. The Oregon-bound companies camped nearby.
In the evening, nineteen‑year‑old John Holman’s gun accidentally went off and shot Brigham Young’s best horse.50 It died a few hours later. Charles Harper explained. “He [Brother Holman] was driving the horse up toward the camp and poked the muzzle of the gun to the horse when the cock caught his clothes and instantly discharged. The ball entering his flank.” John Holman has horrified and very upset. President Young and Albert Rockwood tried to comfort him, but had little success. President Young told him that it was nothing but a horse. Brother Rockwood told him it was lucky that it was not a good man and he should be thankful that it was not more serious. William Clayton commented: “President Young is evidently filled with deep sorrow on account of this accident but attaches no blame to John who seems grieved very much. The brethren generally feel sorrowful, this being the second horse shot by accident on this mission.”
Two men arrived in a carriage to have some blacksmith work done. They mentioned that several companies were on their way from Fort Laramie, including the brethren from the Mormon Battalion who had spent the winter at Pueblo.
Trouble arose on the trail of the second pioneer company. John Taylor was trying to travel ahead and ordered Jedediah M. Grant to stop his team and let him pass, but Brother Grant refused, stating that he was under the direction of John Young. Elder Taylor then ordered Brother Young to halt or he would be charged for disobedience before a Council. The order was ignored. Elder Taylor went back and told the Captains of Tens to stop because their leaders were in rebellion. They stopped and Elder Taylor went on to catch up with Parley P. Pratt’s company.
That evening, charges were brought against Jedediah M. Grant and John Young. Elder Parley P. Pratt, the ranking member of the Twelve preached about the government of the camp. Charles C. Rich said that he “gave us a good lecture.” Brothers Young and Grant asked forgiveness from Elder Taylor for their insult to him and everything was finally settled. It was decided to no longer travel more than two abreast along the trail.
Hosea Stout started at sunrise with a company of men to head to Bellevue, to meet with Robert Mitchell and offer their services to go apprehend the murderer of Jacob Weatherby. As they traveled, more men joined in and they finally numbered fifty‑three. At about the halfway point, they stopped to organize the company. Jesse P. Harmon and Alexander McRae were appointed Lieutenants and were placed over two divisions. Hosea Stout appointed a picket guard to be sent ahead to meet with Mitchell. This guard consisted of Thomas Rich, Daniel Carns, William Meeks, James W. Cummings, Luman H. Calkins, and George D. Grant. When they arrived at Bellevue, the main body of the company waited, while the others went into town. After a while, Hosea Stout led the rest to wait at the Cold Spring Camp.51 He wrote: “Here we quenched our thirst and regaled & refreshed ourselves well. This place looked now deserted, desolate, and lonesome & the Spring almost entirely filled up but the water clear and pure as ever.”
They then returned to Bellevue and the vanguard group soon returned. This group reported that Mitchell came across the river from Trader’s Point with Orson Hyde. Mitchell was unaware about the one hundred men that Orson Hyde desired to be raised. They told Mitchell that they were ready and willing to help him apprehend the murderer. Mitchell backed off and said he was only a Pottawatomie Indian agent, that Major Miller dealt with the Omahas. He said he could only help them as a favor, but could not act as a government official. Besides, the Omahas were away on a hunt. So, the company of men, disgusted with Mitchell’s lack of help, left to return to Winter Quarters.
John D. Lee and others went to Old Council Bluff to get a load of bricks from the fort ruins. On the way, they stopped to build a bridge over South Mire Creek. The day was very warm. They returned at dusk.
A son, Don Carlos Perry, was born to Orrin A. and Mary Hoops Perry.52
The Mexicans at the Pueblo celebrated St. John’s Day. Henry Standage wrote:
Quite a holiday even for the Indians. Horse racing, bull fighting, gambling . . . are the chief amusements today and I must say that the Spaniards in California are the greatest horsemen I ever hear of. . . . Their great exploits with the lasso in catching wild horses and cattle are astonishing. . . . They will when on full gallop stoop and pick up a lasso from off the ground or even a piece of money without either halting or dismounting. . . . I saw a game played by these Spaniards . . . a rooster was buried in the sand save his head only. The Spaniards rode by in turns on full gallop trying at the same time to pick up the cock, several being successful and none falling from the horse.
Battalion officer, Robert Clift, was appointed alcalde [justice of the peace] in San Diego.
“Daniel Spencer Diary,” typescript, LDS Archives; The Personal Writings of Eliza Roxcy Snow, 180‑81, 290; Autobiography of Parley P. Pratt, 358; Cook, Joseph C. Kingsbury, 117; Arrington, Charles C. Rich, 116; “Albert P. Rockwood Journal,” typescript, BYU, 58; Watson, ed., The Orson Pratt Journals, 431; Luke Johnson’s Journal, typescript, BYU, 13; “Charles Harper Diary,” 27; Kenney, ed., Wilford Woodruff’s Journal, 3:214; William Clayton’s Journal, 261‑63; Brooks, ed., On the Mormon Frontier, 1:263‑64; “The Journal of William Empey,” Annals of Wyoming, 21:135; Kelly, ed., Journals of John D. Lee, 180; “Journal Extracts of Henry W. Bigler,” Utah Historical Quarterly, 5:61; Journal of Henry Standage in Golder, The March of the Mormon Battalion, 228‑29; “Norton Jacob Journal,” typescript, 95
Before moving out, several of the brethren had to cross the river to fetch cattle that had mixed in with the Missouri companies’ herds. The pioneers resumed their journey at 6:40 a.m. They forded the Sweetwater, which was about three feet deep. Next, they had to climb a very high bluff, one and a half miles to the top. From this vantage point, Howard Egan was able to spot Edson Whipple’s lost yoke of oxen. He went back and helped George Billings find them. They caught up with the main camp after it had halted for the noon rest.
The wind was blowing strongly from the northwest, making it cold and unpleasant to travel. At 1:20 p.m., they proceeded on, and began to ascend hill after hill for three miles. Wilford Woodruff said that it was the “highest and longest hill that we have passed over on the journey.” On the way up, they found snow banks about 300‑400 feet long and up to ten feet deep. William Clayton commented: “Some of the brethren went to visit and amused themselves by snowballing each other.” Elder Woodruff wrote: “They brought some to me & I ate some. . . . We are so near the top of the mountains & surrounded with snow that the air feels like winter.” Erastus Snow added: “We began to gather our vests, then our coats, and finally, before night, our overcoats, and were cold at that.”
They passed by the three Missouri companies during the day. They had to cross a swampy place and then formed the pioneer encampment on the north side of a creek. They had traveled more than twenty‑one miles during the day. The camping spot was excellent, plenty of water, wood, and grass.53
Thomas Bullock wrote: “One of the brethren brought into camp two solid lumps of ice, gave one lump to the Doctor [Willard Richards] and Sister Lorenzo Young gave him [the doctor] 1/3 pound of butter . . . which he put some ice to, making it hard and cold and having some light bread made, had a perfect feast in the wilderness.”
The men were busy ferrying over some emigrants. They were experiencing some competition from the upper ferry. Appleton Harmon explained that “price war” methods were being used: “We agreed to ferry them [an emigrant company] for fifty cents a wagon, thinking that if we gave the upper ferry no chance of employment they would not remain long.” The wind picked up, and they had to halt the ferry in the afternoon. At 5:30, John Higbee discovered the body of Wesley J. Tustin floating down the river. He had drowned on June 19 at the upper ferry. Captain Vaughn of an Oregon emigrant company retrieved the body. On the body was found a pocket knife and $1.60 which Captain Vaughn said he would forward to the young man’s parents.
In the morning when Charles C. Rich went to hitch up his team of oxen, an accident occurred. Sarah Rich wrote: “My husband was trying to hitch up an unruly ox, and the ox jumped over the wagon tongue, falling on my little son Joseph, and it came very near killing him. We were very much worried about him but he soon got over his hurt.”
Sister Rich described the company challenges as they traveled up the Platte River.
We were detained a good deal by having to repair bridges that the pioneers had left ahead of us in the spring, had made for President Young and some of the Apostles and others who had gone ahead to pick out a location for our final stopping place. We were now following in their trail traveling up the Platte River. Timber was sometimes very scarce and hard to get. We managed to do our cooking with what little we could gather up in camp.
The Joseph Noble Company held a meeting in the morning before traveling on. Eliza R. Snow commented that “the wind & dust [were] almost intolerable” as they traveled twelve miles during the day.
The George Wallace Company started late because their cattle had become mixed up with another company’s cattle. Many of the brethren were angry because they had to separate the oxen. Joseph Kingsbury was irritated at the “slothfulness of some individuals.”54
The pioneer companies reached Loup Fork and camped on its bank for the evening near Looking Glass Creek. Five men from the Pawnee Mission ahead visited the pioneers on the way to Council Bluffs. One of these men was a Dr. Bartlett. They warned the Saints that there was a Indian war party prowling through the country which might give them trouble. Sarah Rich commented: “Our companies would generally camp close together, and when we would stop to camp, would sometimes fire a canon, as those Indians were very much afraid of the big gun, as they called it.”
Patty Sessions was sent back three or four miles to help deliver Margaret Ann Turnbow, the daughter of Samuel and Sylvia Hart Turnbow. Sister Sessions returned to her camp at midnight.
Washington McDonald, age eleven, died. He was the son of John and Rachel McDonald.
It was a very warm day. John D. Lee went for more bricks at Old Council Bluff. At 5 p.m., Isaac Morley, Brother Whiting, and Frederick W. Cox arrived from Winter Quarters. They relayed news that a force of men had been ordered to be raised and marched to Bellevue. This force had been met coldly and it was said that Indian agent Robert Mitchell had said that not even Jesus Christ could hinder the Omahas from killing the cattle.
The detachment traveled twelve miles down the Truckee River and saw plenty of Indians.
Colonel Stevenson left for Los Angeles accompanied by Jesse Hunter, William Hyde, and Horace Alexander. During the day, an Indian was tied to a gun and given 50 lashes by order of Lt. Robert Clift. Robert S. Bliss commented:
Poor fellows, they are the greatest slaves I ever saw here and in the most abject poverty occasioned by Catholic religion & I have no doubt God who is just will bring the Spanish nation to an account for their abuse to the Lamanites from the days of Montezuma until the present time; when he weighs the nations in the balance then we who have suffered so much will bring in our acct.
Howard Egan Diary, Pioneering the West, 84‑5; Kenney, ed., Wilford Woodruff’s Journal, 3:215; “Erastus Snow Journal Excerpts,” Improvement Era 15:246‑47; “The Journal of Nathaniel V. Jones,” Utah Historical Quarterly, 4:20; Sarah Rich Autobiography, typescript, BYU, 72; “Jesse W. Crosby Journal,” typescript, BYU, 34; Cook, Joseph C. Kingsbury, 117; The Personal Writings of Eliza Roxcy Snow, 180‑81, 290; Bagley, ed., The Pioneer Camp of the Saints, 202; “The Journal of Robert S. Bliss,” Utah Historical Quarterly, 4:96; Appleton Milo Harmon Goes West, 37; Kelly, ed., Journals of John D. Lee, 180; William Clayton’s Journal, 263‑66; Smart, ed., Mormon Midwife, 88
It was very cold overnight, twenty‑eight degrees. Milk and water jugs froze. Orson Pratt wrote: “The grass is whitened with frost, and the sudden change from the high temperatures of the sandy vallies below us is most severly felt by both man and beast.”
During the morning the pioneers crossed back over the Sweetwater. It was quite deep causing water to run into the wagon beds. They rested for the noon rest on the banks of the river. Orson Pratt observed: “It was quite interesting to see an abundance of good grass intermixed with various plants and flowers upon the bottoms of this stream, while upon the same bottoms, and only a few yards distant, were large banks of snow several feet in depth.” William Clayton added: “Some of the boys and girls amused themselves by snowballing each other on one of the large snow banks a few rods below the camp.” Even Willard Richards and Thomas Bullock joined in the fun. Norton Jacob recorded: “Here was a snow bank and we cooled our milk. We found the best grass growing where the ground was moistened by the melting snow.”
During the day, Wilford Woodruff, Orson Pratt, and Albert Carrington walked together and discussed some of the mysteries of the Kingdom. They made it clear to each other that they were not stating any doctrine but were throwing out ideas. They discussed how neither God nor man has always existed in their present form. They went on to discuss how God was formed over a long period of time by a combination of intelligences.
At noon, Eric Glines caught up with the pioneer company. He reported that the ferry had moved eight miles down the river. Brother Glines had camped each night with companies of Missourians, except for one night. Evidently he did not make a confession to the brethren as he had said he would to the men at the ferry. William Clayton wrote: “He does not assign any reason why he followed us, but evidently considering to repent and obey council than to continue obstinate and rebellious.”
The road was excellent. Wilford Woodruff wrote:
It was the best road we had for many days & had it not have been for the wind river range of mountains full in view on our right & the table covered with eternal snow, & some snow banks 10 feet deep by the side of the road as we passed along & the table rock on the left, I should have thought myself traveling over the beautiful prairies of Illinois & Missouri. . . . I saw more in one hour this evening than I ever saw during my whole life either in the rude state or polished & set in breast pins in all the jewellers shops I ever saw in my travels in the world from the size of a goose egg to a pea.
Heber C. Kimball, Orson Pratt, George A. Smith, and John Brown drove ahead in Elder Pratt’s carriage to take observations with the barometer. Fremont had been unable to identify the point of the continental divide with certainty, so Orson Pratt made his attempt. He believed he found it, and measured it to be 7085 feet above sea level.
They thought the main company would be joining them, so they did not return and established their camp at Pacific Springs. After the main camp was established on the banks of the Sweetwater, several men were sent out on horses to find them.
The advance group had met a small company of men journeying from Oregon back to the States. This group was guided by a Major Moses Harris, an experienced trapper in the Rockies for twenty‑five years. He shared information about the Great Basin and gave an unfavorable report about the idea of establishing a colony in the basin because of the scarcity of timber. He had traveled all the way around the Great Salt Lake, and had not found any outlet. He showed the brethren a copy of the California Star, published by Brother Samuel Brannan in San Francisco. The brethren camped for the night with this company. Heber C. Kimball returned to the main camp with the horsemen who came searching for them.
The ferrymen took across forty wagons and did about $15 of blacksmithing. At noon, they noticed the ferry boat from the upper site floating down the river all cut to pieces. The company that had been running the upper ferry was not getting enough business and decided to move on. Rather than leave the ferry behind to be used by others, they shamefully destroyed it.
At 6 p.m., Amasa Lyman, Roswell Stevens, Thomas Woolsey, and two members of the battalion arrived. Captain James Brown and the rest of the battalion and Mississippi Saints were camping a few miles behind.
During the morning, the Abraham O. Smoot hundred held a meeting. Brother Smoot instructed them in their duties. He exhorted the company to faithfully attend to their prayers. The pioneer companies crossed over Looking Glass Creek on a bridge and traveled to Beaver Creek where they found many wild berries to eat.
While Robert Gardner helped to repair a bridge, his five-year-old son, Robert, was kicked by an ox, fell beneath the wheel, and the ox pulled the wagon over the boy’s stomach.55
Isaac C. Haight wrote: “The roads good; the grass very short and dry -- mostly buffalo grass. The wind blew hard, the dust flew in clouds most enough to suffocate us.”
It rained in the afternoon. Mary Richards was suffering terribly from an illness and she deeply missed her missionary husband:
Oh how much through these days of suffering did I miss the kindly look and sympathizing words of my beloved companion. True, I had a kind mother who seemed willing to do all she could for me, but she needed to be waited upon rather than to attend upon me, and the thought that she had so much to do rather added to than deminished my suffering. But thanks be to the Lord who still continues to bless me with patience & strength to endure all my trials, and oh! that I may ever continue to find favor in his sight.
The detachment camped by an Indian village that only consisted of some brush that had been cut and stuck in the ground. “There were about two hundred Indians in number, some ran to the mountains and others laid in the brush. Some of them came out after we had been there a short time.”
Appleton Milo Harmon Goes West, 37‑8; “The Journal of William Empey,” Annals of Wyoming, 21:136; Cook, Joseph C. Kingsbury, 117; “The Journal of Nathaniel V. Jones,” Utah Historical Quarterly, 4:20; “Albert P. Rockwood Journal,” typescript, BYU, 59; Watson, ed., The Orson Pratt Journals, 432‑34; Autobiography of John Brown, 77; Kenney, ed., Wilford Woodruff’s Journal, 3:215‑18; William Clayton’s Journal, 266‑69; Bagley, ed., The Pioneer Camp of the Saints, 202; Ward, ed., Winter Quarters, 150; 1997-98 Church Almanac, 118; “Isaac C. Haight Journal,” typescript, 41; “Norton Jacob Journal,” typescript, 97
On this chilly morning near the continental divide, the pioneers departed from their camp at 7:55 a.m. It was exactly three years since the Prophet Joseph Smith and his brother Hyrum were martyred in Carthage jail. Most of the brethren wanted to spend the day fasting and praying, but because the Missouri companies were so close and feed was so scarce, they decided to move on. William Clayton wrote: “Many minds have reverted back to the scenes at Carthage jail, and it is a gratification that we have so far prospered in our endeavors to get from under the grasp of our enemies.”
They soon passed the eight men heading back to the states. The eight had twenty horses and mules, loaded with packs, robes and skins. Some of the pioneers sent some letters back with them. After about three miles, they arrived at the spot that Orson Pratt believed was the continental divide. After three more miles, they reached Pacific Springs, where Orson Pratt and others had camped for the night. They could clearly see that the streams were running west instead of east, a sign that they had crossed over the divide. Wilford Woodruff felt a historic feeling as he tasted water for the first time in his life that flowed to the Pacific Ocean.
The mountaineer, Moses Harris, decided to travel with the pioneers for a while. He sold some elk and deer skins to the men and hoped to guide an emigrant company heading west, to Oregon. He told the brethren that the Bear River Valley and the surrounding country, including that area near Salt Lake, was a poor place to settle. William Clayton recorded:
From his description, which is very discouraging, we have little chance to hope for even a moderately good country anywhere in those regions. He speaks of the whole region as being sandy and destitute of timber and vegetation except the wild sage. He gives the most favorable account of a small region under the Bear River mountains called the Cache Valley where they have practiced caching their robes, etc., to hide them from the Indians. He represents this as being a fine place to winter cattle.
He gave the brethren several copies of Samuel Brannan’s “California Star.” William Clayton wrote: “I had the privilege of perusing several of these papers during the day but found little interesting news.”
After crossing a small stream, they stopped for the noon rest on its bank. They continued on at 2:25 p.m., traveled until dusk, and camped at Dry Sandy [Little Sandy River.] There was no wood but there was some water. Moses Harris continued to talk about the Rocky Mountain region. He recommended that the Saints settle in an area on the Bear River.56 William Clayton wrote that it “might answer our purpose pretty well if the report is true. It is about thirty miles long and fifteen miles wide and tolerably well timbered. We generally feel that we shall know best by going ourselves for the reports of travelers are so contradictory it is impossible to know which is the truth without going to prove it.”
Harris said that future companies should be able to get through the South Pass [which they had just come through] as late as November, but if they should get blocked because of snow there is another way to the Green River.57
At 8 a.m., Captain James Brown and other members of the Mormon Battalion sick detachment from Pueblo arrived at the ferry. The ferrymen spent the day ferrying over an emigration company for $16. Another company arrived in the afternoon but refused to pay the fee of 75 cents per wagon. They went up the river about two miles and started to ferry over their wagons with a raft that had been left there by a former company. Seven members of that company returned “sick of rafting” and paid the 75 cent fee. Blacksmithing was performed for battalion members.
The large second pioneer company rested on the Sabbath, but because Beaver Creek was so high, they spent some time moving many wagons across the stream. A general meeting was held and it was decided to take a sixty-five-mile detour from the first pioneer company’s trail. The waters of Loup Fork were much higher than when the first company crossed, making it impossible to ford the river where they did, so it would be necessary to travel further up the river.
At a High Council meeting, John H. Blazzard was tried for taking an ox away from the possession of a the guard. The ox had been seized and impounded because it had been found in the corn field. Brother Blazzard had taken it and threatened to fight the guard. He was fined two dollars. Isaac Allred came in from Garden Grove and visited Hosea Stout. It was the first time they had seen each other since Brother Stout had been in Garden Grove the previous year.
A Sabbath meeting was held at John D. Lee’s house. Isaac Morley, visiting from Winter Quarters, addressed the settlement on the subject of self government. He was followed by talks from John D. Lee, Samuel Gully, and Frederick W. Cox. After the meeting was closed, twelve children were brought forth to be blessed. Isaac Morley gave instructions regarding the ordinance of blessing children. All the names, ages, and birthplaces were carefully recorded. Afterward, a rich dinner festival was given by the Lees.
The detachment came to a hot spring. Nathaniel V. Jones wrote: “It was a curiosity. The water was thrown out by steam in a solid column four feet high and sometimes higher. The steam could be seen three or four miles off. It would discharge one barrel in one minute. The ground all around there seemed to be hollow underneath, and it was hot for half a mile around.” They camped on Mary’s River. Sergeant Jones observed: “It seems as though the curse of God rested upon this country. It is all a barren unfruitful waste.”
Henry Standage spent the day in his tent learning Spanish. He commented: “Our officers are becoming more and more like men, giving us as many privileges as they can conveniently. They have not been more than half as strict for a few days past. In fact they seem to realize that their power as military commanders will soon be gone and that their influence will go too.” He mentioned that Brothers Andrew Lytle and James Pace had been appointed to lead the men back to the main body of the church. He believed that they were the only two officers who at all times had respect for the Priesthood and treated the enlisted men as loving fathers would. Brothers Steven St. John and Averett returned from visiting San Diego. They reported that company B did not have to build a fort like those at Los Angeles and that they were allowed to work for the citizens for pay when off duty.
Brother Reuben McBride took Elder Lyman O. Littlefield and Brother Fox to Painesville, Ohio, where they took passage in a stage for Buffalo, New York, to continue their journey to their mission to England.58
Howard Egan Diary, Pioneering the West, 86‑7; William Clayton’s Journal, 266‑69; “Lyman Littlefield Reminiscences (1888),” p.193; “Albert P. Rockwood Journal,” typescript, BYU, 59; Kenney, ed., Wilford Woodruff’s Journal, 3:218‑19; “Jesse W. Crosby Journal,” typescript, BYU, 34; Cook, Joseph C. Kingsbury, 117; Appleton Milo Harmon Goes West, 38; Kelly, ed., Journals of John D. Lee, 180‑81; “The Journal of Nathaniel V. Jones,” Utah Historical Quarterly, 4:20; Journal of Henry Standage in Golder, The March of the Mormon Battalion, 229; Brooks, ed., On the Mormon Frontier, 1:264
During the morning, many of the men made trades with Moses Harris for pants, jackets, and other items. He was an experienced trader and they had difficulty bargaining for fair prices. At 7:30 a.m., the pioneer company rolled out of their camp and parted with Moses Harris who was waiting for some Oregon companies to guide. After traveling six miles, they came to a fork in the road. The road to the right was the Sublette cutoff, which bypassed Fort Bridger on the way to Oregon. The pioneers took the road to the left which headed toward Fort Bridger. The Utah mountains were seen ahead to the southwest, covered with snow, and the Tetons could be seen to the northwest.
They halted at 1:30 p.m. to rest on the banks of Little Sandy River. The country was barren, with very little grass. William Clayton wrote: “One of the brethren has picked up a large piece of petrified wood. It resembles the outside layer of a cottonwood tree next to the bark, and appears to have rotted and broken off short then petrified and turned to a solid, heavy, hard, flint stone, but retaining its original shape and appearance.” Sister Harriet Young, traveling with her two children, wrote: “This journey is very fatiguing. We feel almost wore out.”
At 4:15, they crossed over the Little Sandy which was soft and muddy. They had been planning on going eight more miles, but instead halted when they were met by George A. Smith, who had traveled ahead of the camp. Elder Smith introduced the brethren to the legendary Jim Bridger who was heading to Fort Laramie with two other men. Mr Bridger knew that the pioneers wanted to meet with him, so he offered to spend the rest of the day and night with them if they would stop and camp. They soon found a camping spot on Little Sandy.
After they established camp, the Twelve and several others went to visit with Mr. Bridger, to ask him questions about the road ahead and about the Great Basin region. William Clayton commented: “It was impossible to form a correct idea of either from the very imperfect and irregular way he gave his descriptions.”
Bridger described the route ahead and the area around Green River. He discussed the Hastings route to the Great Salt Lake which went through Weber Canyon. He said that there was no timber on Utah Lake which was fifteen miles long, but the streams that ran into it were well timbered. Utah Lake was thirty miles from the Salt Lake. The banks of the river that ran between them had plenty of blue grass and red and white clover. Some of his men had traveled all the way around Salt Lake in canoes. It took three months and these men believed it was 550 miles around it. Regarding the Ute Indians he said: “The Utah tribe of Indians inhabit the region around the Utah Lake and are a bad people. If they catch a man alone they are sure to rob and abuse him if they don’t kill him, but parties of men are in no danger.”
Bridger spoke about the Bear River Valley to the north. A man had started a farm in the valley. The soil was good but it would be difficult to grow corn there because of the very cold nights. He described in detail the country south of Utah Lake and into present‑day Arizona. Some areas were rich in minerals such as copper, iron, and silver. William Clayton wrote: “He thinks the Utah Lake is the best country in the vicinity of the Salt Lake and the country is still better the farther south we go until we meet the desert which is upwards of 200 miles south from the Utah Lake. There is plenty of timber on all the streams and mountains and abundance of fish in the streams. There is timber all around the Utah Lake and plenty of good grass; not much of the wild sage only in small patches.”
William Clayton summed up the meeting: “Such was the information we obtained from Mr. Bridger, but we shall know more about things and have a better understanding when we have seen the country ourselves.” Supper was provided for Mr. Bridger and then the brethren retired to discuss all the new information that they had obtained.
Wilford Woodruff included this summary in his journal of this historic meeting with Jim Bridger:
He spoke more highly of the great Salt Lake for a settlement than Major Harris did. That . . . if this people settled in it he wanted to settle with them. There was but one thing that could operate against it becoming a great grain country & that would be frost. . . . He said there was a spring at the end of the Salt Lake that produced both Hot & cold fresh water, & hot & cold salt water out of the same hole or spring & formed a large body of verdegreece below which the Indians get to paint skins, arrows &c.
Brigham Young recorded in his journal, “Bridger considered it imprudent to bring a large population into the Great Basin until it was ascertained that grain could be raised and he said he would give one thousand dollars for a bushel of corn raised in the Basin.”
Howard Egan recorded: “After I ate supper I went down to where Mr Bridger was encamped, and from his appearance and conversation, I should not take him to be a man of truth. In his description of Bear River Valley and the surrounding country, which was very good, he crossed himself many times.” His description greatly contradicted the one given by Moses Harris.
Cattle started to fail from the hard journey. Some of the oxen started to get sick from “foul feet.” More rest would need to be given to the animals. Wagons started to break down from being damaged while crossing the creeks. The Joseph Noble company was delayed because not all the group had crossed over Beaver Creek. The main body continued on and crossed Indian Creek. They noticed corn fields as they neared the Pawnee Mission. Some of the caretakers of the mission visited the companies.
Charles C. Rich recorded: “Bro. Taylor’s company traveled ahead, Bro. Pratt and myself in the rear. After Bro Taylor’s started out and gone about 2 miles, Mackelroy sent us word that there was a war party lurking about. Taylor returned and I went with him. We fired the cannon twice. Traveled six miles; myself and Pratt camped at the Missionary Station; pickets out; all things safe.”
Patty Sessions wrote: “We wash. The men are called out to drill. We have prayers night and morning at the ringing of the bell. We start 1 oclock, go 6 miles, camp. The cannons go in the rear of our company.”
John D. Lee notified the brethren to build their share of the public fences in order to prevent the crops from being destroyed by the cattle. He spent the day building chimneys from the brick obtained from the Old Council Bluff ruins.
A daughter, Lorana Boren, was born to Colman and Melinda Keller Boren.
Colonel Stevenson returned from San Diego. The battalion learned that twenty‑four of their brethren stationed in San Diego had reenlisted for six months. Colonel Stevenson stepped up his efforts to convince others to reenlist.
William Clayton’s Journal, 272‑78; “Diary of Lorenzo Dow Young,” Utah Historical Quarterly, 14:163 Watson, ed., Manuscript History of Brigham Young, 561; Howard Egan Diary, Pioneering the West, 89; Kenney, ed., Wilford Woodruff’s Journal, 3:219‑20; Kelly, ed., Journals of John D. Lee, 180‑81 Cook, Joseph C. Kingsbury, 117; The Personal Writings of Eliza Roxcy Snow, 181 Arrington, Charles C. Rich, 116; Journal of Henry Standage in Golder, The March of the Mormon Battalion, 230; “Norton Jacob Journal,” 98; Smart, ed., Mormon Midwife, 89
The pioneers said good‑bye to Jim Bridger in the morning. Bridger left some parting advice that it would not be wise to bring a large population to the Great Basin without first determining whether or not grain could be grown there. Brigham Young gave him a letter of introduction for Thomas Grover, at the Mormon Ferry. “We introduce to your notice Mr. James Bridger whom we expected to have seen at his fort. He is now on his way to Fort Laramie. We wish you to cross him and his two men on our account because he was going to Laramie and expected to return to his fort in time to pilot the pioneers through to Salt Lake. He said that he could take us to a place that would suit us.”
They traveled to the Big Sandy River and stopped for the noon rest. Half of the company forded the river and rested on the other side. It was about 80 yards wide and almost three feet deep. During the day they saw “scarcely any green thing except the various species of wild sage.” As usual, the mosquitoes were very bothersome in the evening.
In the afternoon, the rest of the company crossed the river, and they traveled down the Big Sandy on its north bank. William Clayton wrote:
After traveling nine and a half miles President Young rode up and reported that we would have to go at least six miles farther before we could get feed. It was then a quarter after six, but the teamsters spurred up in order to get through. Most of the road after this for four miles was very hilly and uneven and in places the loose fragments of rocks made it very bad traveling, but many were thrown from the road by the spare men.
The pioneers traveled on and did not stop until 9 p.m. They had to set up the camp in the dark after traveling a record 23 3/4 miles during this day.
John Fowler became violently sick during the day.59 He complained about pain in his head, back, and bones. The jarring of the wagon caused him great pain. Wilford Woodruff wrote: “He finally was out of his head & became wild.” They doctored him with herbs and pills, and he soon was doing better. Jacob Weiler60 and William Dykes were also sick with the same mysterious illness. The brethren tried to figure out the cause of the sickness. William Clayton wrote: “It is supposed by some that this sickness is caused by the use of the mineral saleratus or alkali picked up on the lakes and surface of the land and it is considered poisonous.”
Lieutenant Elam Luddington, of the battalion, was ferried over for one dollar. Sergeant Thomas Williams paid two dollars to have two wagons brought across. They ferried over Sarah Kelly’s wagon for free.61 The ferrymen ferried across seventy‑one other wagons during the day.
The pioneer companies passed by the deserted Pawnee mission and village. Jesse Crosby wrote:
The village of the Pawnee seemed a work of some magnitude, but now in ruins, being burned by the Sioux last year. The roofs of their wigwams are round, formed of poles, covered with grass and earth. We saw and examined the cells in the earth where they conceal their corn. We saw no Indians yet some few seemed lurking around. A calf which had lagged behind came up with an arrow shot through his back.
Patty Sessions wrote: “We pass the Pawnee village to day. It has been burnt by the Sioux. We then crossed a creek, chalk in the bottom so that it stuck to the wagon wheels. We camp on the bank of the Loup, drive our cattle all together into the river to drink. It was a pretty sight.”
The battalion was assembled with their arms at 8:30 a.m. Colonel Stevenson addressed the men. He explained that it was necessary to keep troops in California until they could be replaced by others from the U.S. He tried to persuade the men to reenlist. He needed at least one company to reenlist. He said he understood the need for many of the men to return to their families, but he wanted at least the single men to reenlist. They would be able to elect their own Colonel. He promised them that they would be discharged in February, but would receive a full years’ pay. The Army would also pay to send them back to their families. He concluded his remarks and left them to meet with Captains Jefferson Hunt and Jesse Hunter.
Jefferson Hunt stated that it was their duty to reenlist. Jesse Hunter also said the same thing. He stated that this would be an opportunity to further establish the Mormon influence in California. Captain Daniel Davis spoke and supported the reenlistment. Lt. Cyrus C. Canfield said that the pay received would further help their families journey to the west. Henry Standage recorded: “He also spoke of faith and said that some talked as though they could go into the Mountains and live on faith but for his part he believed different, having spent the most of the past year in the Mountains and really believed that had it not been for the little food furnished by the U.S. we would have starved to death, with all our faith.” Lt. George P. Dykes spoke in favor of the reenlistment. He made reference to the sufferings of the Donner‑Reed party in the mountains and believed that it would be better to stay in California than to risk this type of suffering by going to the mountains.
Finally, one of the priesthood leaders, David Pettigrew spoke. He said it was the duty of the battalion to return to the Saints. They had already met all their obligations to the government. The meeting was soon adjourned because of the hot sun. The men walked away in a state of confusion. At noon, they again met in a tent. A committee was formed to draft an article stating the terms for reenlistment. The committee was composed of Jesse Hunter, Daniel Davis, and David Pettigrew. When the articles were composed, they were read to the men and more speeches were given. Sergeant William Hyde urged the men to return to their families. He believed they had fulfilled their duty, that heaven was satisfied. “As for me, let others do as they may, God being my helper, I shall return to my family and to headquarters [of the Church].”62
Daniel Tyler and David Pettigrew agreed. Sergeant James Ferguson spoke in favor of the reenlistment. Those favoring reenlistment spoke about a secret meeting with the Twelve before they left Council Bluffs and tried to use this privileged information to convince the men that the Twelve actually wanted them to reenlist. Lt. Cyrus C. Canfield promised that the men who did not reenlist would suffer and starve if they went to the Mountains. The officers became frustrated and accused some men such as Levi Hancock in using their influence to cause the enlisted men to have hard feelings against the officers. These accusations were denied. The meeting was concluded. Only 15‑16 men stepped forward to reenlist. The terms written by the committee were taken to Colonel Stevenson but were rejected. Jesse Hunter was shocked that so few men had wanted to reenlist while such a large number reenlisted at San Diego.
Jefferson Hunt, Jesse Hunt, Daniel Davis, George Rosecrans, and George P. Dykes wrote a letter to Colonel Stevenson stating that they had followed his request to reenlist the battalion but had not succeeded. One factor explained was that most of the men had not heard from their families for many months. If they knew their families were fine, they would probably reenlist. Regardless, these officers would continue efforts to persuade the Mormon Battalion to reenlist. Reddick Allred wrote:
We were called upon to re‑enlist one company at our discharge and Lieutenant Dykes asked me to favor it, but I told him no. He said, ‘Don’t say no, you have influence with the boys and if you don’t it will fail.’ I said, ‘I enlisted by council and will not again without it.’ He said, ‘We can’t get it and must act upon our own judgment.’ I said, ‘That is what I am going to do and return.’ The boys sent a man to say if I would enlist they would make me captain. I said no.’
Wilford Woodruff’s Journal, 3:220‑21; “Jesse W. Crosby Journal,” typescript, BYU, 34; Appleton Milo Harmon Goes West, 38‑9; Watson, ed., The Orson Pratt Journals, 436; “Luke S. Johnson Journal,” typescript, BYU, 14; William Clayton’s Journal, 278; Journal of Henry Standage in Golder, The March of the Mormon Battalion, 230‑33; Yurtinus, A Ram in the Thicket, 595‑96; Reddick Allred, auto, Treasures of Pioneer History 5:306; Smart, ed., Mormon Midwife, 89
The pioneers traveled eight miles and arrived at the Green River about noon. They immediately went to work building a raft and preparing the banks for wharfs. Harriet Young wrote: “Camped on the bank under the shade of some trees, which was a treat I assure you, they being the only ones we had seen for some hundred miles.” Orson Pratt described the river: “Green River is very high, there being in the channel from 12 to 15 feet of water; the width of the water is about 180 yards, with a very rapid current.”63
At 2 p.m., Samuel Brannan, the leader of the Saints who sailed around Cape Horn in the Brooklyn to California, arrived. Wilford Woodruff wrote: “We were truly glad to meet with him that we might hear from him & the Saints who were with him. He gave us an account of their landing, their travels & the present settlement which was 200 miles up the river from the bay. They were putting in wheat & preparing for us. He had come all the way with only two men to meet with us.”64
Brother Brannan later wrote of his recent journey through the Sierra Nevada mountains:
We crossed the Snowy Mountains of California, a distance of 40 miles . . . in one day and two hours, a thing that has never been done before in less than three days. We traveled on foot and drove our animals before us, the snow from twenty to one hundred feet deep. When we arrived through, not one of us could scarcely stand on our feet. The people from California told us we could not cross them under two months, there being more snow on the mountains than had ever been known before, but God knows best, and was kind enough to prepare the way before us.
Brother Brannan also told them that the Mormon Battalion was at Los Angeles and that Elder Addison Pratt had arrived from the Society Islands. He told them that a whole island inhabited by three thousand people were baptized. He brought with him the sixteen issues of the California Star, a newspaper he published in California. Brother Brannan had traveled by way of Fort Hall65 and did not go through the Great Salt Lake Valley. He described his journey through the Sierra Nevada Mountains, where he had gone through the campground of the Donner‑Reed party. He saw their skulls, bones, and carcasses strewed in every direction. He also met one of the survivors making his way to the settlements. Samuel Brannan tried his best to convince the brethren that California was the right place for the Saints to settle.
The rafts were completed before dark. They were rigged with oars and rudders. More members of the camp were sick with what they called Mountain Fever, including George Billings, Erastus Snow, and Edson Whipple. Howard Egan baptized George Billings for his health and he immediately improved.66
William Clayton wrote: “There is a slough a little down the river where some of the brethren have caught some very nice fish, but the mosquitoes are so very troublesome it is difficult abiding out of doors.”
Captain James Brown and the Mormon Battalion detachment left the ferry crossing and continued west. Privates Marcus N. Eastman and Jonathan Pugmire Jr. went on furlough and were permitted to return to Council Bluffs. The ferrymen crossed over seventy‑three wagons during the day. Included in this number were twelve wagons belonging to the company that refused to accept the offer to ferry over their wagons for seventy‑five cents. They went off and tried for two days, but could only get two wagons across. They returned and had to wait until ninety other wagons were taken across and then they were taken across for one dollar per wagon.
As the second pioneer company traveled up Loup Fork, they came upon deep ravines that were difficult to pass through. Parley P. Pratt decided that it was time to cross over the river. Eliza R. Snow wrote: “We are on an extensive prairie with little shrubbery & the Camp can be view’d at once which presents a very imposing sight ‑‑ had the pleasure of seeing a herd of antelopes running in every direction.”
Maria Duzett Edwards, age thirty-two, died of consumption. She was the wife of Elisha Edwards.
Robert S. Bliss recorded his journal that Company B was mustered for the last time in the service of the United States.
“Luke S. Johnson Journal,” typescript, BYU, 14; Kenney, ed., Wilford Woodruff’s Journal, 3:221; Watson, ed., Manuscript History of Brigham Young, 561; “Diary of Lorenzo Dow Young,” Utah Historical Quarterly, 14:163; Howard Egan Diary, Pioneering the West, 90; Watson, ed., The Orson Pratt Journals, 436‑37; Bagley, ed., The Pioneer Camp of the Saints, 214; William Clayton’s Journal, 279; Millennial Star 9 (15 October 1947): 305; Appleton Milo Harmon Goes West, 38; Jesse W. Crosby Journal, typescript, BYU, 34; The Personal Writings of Eliza Roxcy Snow, 181; Brooks, ed., On the Mormon Frontier, 1:264; “The Journal of Robert S. Bliss,” Utah Historical Quarterly, 4:96
1During the previous summer, the Mississippi Company traveled into Nebraska thinking that the pioneers were ahead of them, to the west. As they approached Fort Laramie, they learned that the Saints were not ahead, but rather were back on the Missouri River. They headed south and spent the winter on the Arkansas River at Pueblo. John Brown, no doubt, was very happy to see them. He had led the Mississippi company to Pueblo during the previous year, returned to Mississippi, and then joined the pioneer company at Winter Quarters.
2The detachment of the battalion had left Pueblo on May 24 and was at that time south of present‑day Denver, Colorado.
3Shadrach Roundy was born in 1789, in Vermont. After arriving in the Salt Lake Valley, he traveled back and met his son in the second pioneer company. He turned around and went back to the valley. He was a member of the first high council and the Territorial Legislature. He later was the first bishop of the Sixteenth Ward. He crossed the plains many times to help immigrants. He was one of the founders of Z.C.M.I. He died in 1872.
4Seth Taft was born in 1796, in Massachusetts. After arriving in the Salt Lake Valley, he returned toward Winter Quarters. He found his wife in the second pioneer company at Little Sandy Creek, in Wyoming, and he joined that company. Later he was called as the bishop of the Ninth Ward. He later was ordained a patriarch. He died in 1863.
5Captain Brown was leading the battalion detachment north, and not toward Mexico.
6These letters did arrive safely.
7Three of these sisters were single teen-age girls.
8Ira Oviatt was a member of the Council Bluffs High Council. The Oviatt family went to Utah in 1851 and settled in Farmington.
9Thomas Grover was away with the first pioneer company.
10Starling Graves Driggs was born in 1822, in Pennsylvania. He later lived in the home of apostle Amasa Lyman for two years in Salt Lake City. He helped settle San Bernardino, California. He later settled his family in Parowan, Utah. He died in 1860 from an accident involving a threshing machine.
11The Bates family late settled in Tooele, Utah.
12This was the grave of six‑year‑old Joel Hembree who had been run over by a wagon.
13They camped on Deer Creek south of the future site of Glenrock, Wyoming which was established several years later as a way‑station for the Mormon pioneers. On the return trip in September, Brigham Young would be chased by a grizzly bear on Deer Creek.
14John D. Lee listed those men in his family who were working this day at Summer Quarters: Alfred D. Young, Allen Weeks, George W. Hickerson, James Woolsey, Levi North, William Swap, Jacob Woolsey, Hyrum Rheu, Allanson Allen, Marshal Allen, William Woolsey, David Young, and Eli Bennett.
15This crossing was near present-day Casper, Wyoming.
16This was about fifteen miles north of the present‑day Wyoming‑Colorado state line.
17Alexander Philip Chesley was born in 1814, in Virginia. He would later bring his family to the Salt Lake Valley in 1851. He settled in Provo, Utah, where he taught school and was a lawyer. In 1856 he served a mission to Australia. He never returned and died there in 1884.
18Seeley Owen was born in 1805. After arriving in the Salt Lake Valley, he returned to Winter Quarters for his family. He lived in Provo and later helped settle Wallsburg, Utah. He later moved to Arizona and died near Flagstaff in 1881, in a railroad accident.
19Ammon Tunis Rappleye was born in 1807 in New York. After arriving in the Salt Lake Valley, he returned to Winter Quarters. After arriving again to Utah, he was employed as Brigham Young’s head gardner. He later filled a mission to the Eastern States and helped settle Millard County. He died in 1883.
20Artemas Johnson was born in 1809, in New York. After arriving in the Salt Lake Valley, he returned to Winter Quarters in the fall. It is believed that he later returned to Utah.
21Shortly after Parley’s first wife, Thankful, died in 1837, he married a widow, Mary Ann Frost Stearns. They had four children, two who died young. Parley was probably returning to Winter Quarters to persuade Mary to go west along with his other wives. In February, 1846, Mary had crossed the Mississippi to Sugar Creek, but soon returned to Nauvoo to see her parents. At that time, Parley P. Pratt returned to Nauvoo but was unable to persuade her to rejoin the Camp of Israel. She had promised to leave later in the Spring. Now, many months later, Elder Pratt again tried to persuade her to join the Saints in their migration west. Mary would not go with Parley P. Pratt in the pioneer company. She would return to her family in Maine. Later, in 1852, she would cross the plains to Utah with her children. Elder Pratt saw them for the first time in several years. He wrote: “The two children were glad to see me, but their mother had for several years been alienated from me. I however, supported her until the following spring, When she applied for and obtained a bill of divorce; after which, with the two children, she removed to Utah County.”
22When the pioneers came upon some traders heading east, across the river on the Oregon Trail, they stopped the wagons and quickly wrote fifty‑two letters to be taken back to their loved‑ones.
23This was not so, they were still gathering near the Elkhorn River.
24Brigham Young would later reprove Elder Pratt sharply for this change in organization.
25Stephen H. Goddard was born in 1810, in New York. He had an excellent singing voice and would lead the singing around the campfires. He later became a conductor for the Tabernacle Choir. He died in 1898.
26James Craig was born in 1821, in Ireland. He was known as the “bugler of the pioneers.” He later settled in the Millcreek area and served a mission to England. He helped colonize Santa Clara, Utah, where he raised cotton. He died in 1868.
27Included in the first ten led by Isaac C. Haight were: Joseph G. Baxter, Eveline Mattin Boggs, Mary Boggs, Esther Jones Brown, Catherine Adelia Hatwick Curtis, Alanson Eldredge, Alanson Eldredge, Alma Eldredge, Diana Eldredge, Edmond Eldredge, Esther Ann Eldredge, Hiram Eldredge, Ira Eldredge, Nancy Black Eldredge, Martin Luther Ensign, Caleb Haight, Caroline Eliza Haight, Eliza Ann Snyder Haight, Isaac Chauncey Haight, Sarah A1dridge Haight, Temperance Keturah Haight, Isaac James, Jane E. James, Silas James, Sylvester James, Ruth Martin, Hannah Potter, John H. Potter, William Potter, Ann Elizabeth Roper, George Smith Rust, Amanda Spencer, Anna Spencer, Twin Spencer, Charles Henry Spencer, C1audius Victor Spencer, Daniel Spencer, Edwin E. Spencer, Emily Spencer, Frances C. Spencer, Gilbert H. Spencer, Hirum Theron Spencer, Mariah Antoinette Spencer, Mary Leone Spencer, Elizabeth Howard Standage, Ephraim R. Whitney, and Harriet Whitney.
Included in the second ten led by Hector Haight were: Alexander Boss, Alfred Boss, Calvin Boss, David Boss, David Boss Jr., Martha Boss, Maria Davidson, Alphonzo Green, Alva Alphonzo Green, Betsy Murdock Green, Sarah Annadella Green, Hector Caleb Haight, Horton David Haight, Julia Van Orden Haight, Mary Adelia Haight, William Van Orden Haight, Chelnecha Smith Hambleton, Jerusha Lucretia Hambleton, Lucy Ann Hambleton, Madison Daniel Hambleton, James N. McIntire, Rosannah McIntire, William F. McIntire, Eunice Sweet Murdock, Joseph Stacy Murdock, Mary Murdock, Nymphus Coridon Murdock, and Sally Stacy Murdock.
Included in the third ten led by Samuel Ensign were: Anna Abbott, Rufus Abbott, Polly Woodsum Bond, Ann Brimhall, Adelia Ann Brown, Mary Jane Brown, Niamah Brown, Phebe Narcissia Brown, William Brown, Eliza Clement, Albert Crandall, Mary Crandall, Melissa Crandall, Alva Cummings, Benjamin Franklin Cummings, Mary Cummings, John Calvin Ensign, Julia Searles Ensign, Lydia Esther Ensign, Lyman D. Ensign, Martin Luther Ensign, Mary Bronson Ensign, Mary Everett Gordon Ensign, Rufus Bronson Ensign, Samuel Ensign, Samuel Lozene Ensign, Edwin Frost, Emeline Frost, Mary Elizabeth Frost, Belinda Hickenlooper, John Thomas Hickenlooper, Sarah Hawkins Hickenlooper, William Haney Hickenlooper, Eliza Holmes, Ellen Holmes, George Holmes, Hyrum Holmes, Oliver Holmes, Samuel O. Holmes, Rosetta King, Amanda Nowlin, Bryan Ward Nowlin, Edwin Randolf, Ann Snedaker, Marris J. Snedaker, Almira Sophia Taft, and Harriet Taft.
Included in the fourth ten led by Erastus Bingham were: Brigham Heber Bingham, Edwin Bingham, Erastus Bingham, Lucinda Gates Bingham, Maria Louisa Bingham, Olive Hovey Bingham, Olive L. Bingham, Perry E. Bingham, Sanford Bingham, Willard Bingham, Henrietta Deming, Maria Deming, Moses Deming, Wayne Deming, Elijah Norman Freeman, Mary Bingham Freeman, Thomas Gates, Alvin Greely Green, Austin Greeley Green, Fanny Greeley Green, Harriet Ann Green, Robert Green, Beason Lewis, Elizabeth Lewis, John Moss Lewis, Martha Ann Lewis, Sarah Elizabeth Lewis, William Crawford Lewis, Caroline J. Ostrander, Eliza Morrison Ostrander, Elizabeth Ostrander, and William C. Staines.
Included in the fifth ten led by George Boyes were: Elizabeth Boyes, George Boyes, Hewy Boyes, Margaret Boyes, Thomas Boyes, William Boyes, Daniel Drake, Horace Drake, Orson Perkins Drake, Patience Perkins Drake, Isaac N. Goodell, Jacob Houtz, Lucinda Houtz, Lydia Mease Houtz, Mary Elizabeth Houtz, Hannah Pearce Ralston, John Ralston, Josephine Ralston, Asaph Rice, James Rigby, Ambrose Shaw, Permelia Shaw, and Phoebe Spiers.
28Included in the first ten led by Ariah C. Brower were: Elizabeth Boyes, Samuel Bringhurst, Ann Elizabeth Brower, Ariah Coates Brower, Ariah Hussey Brower, Margaret E. Hussey Brower, Victoria Adelide Brower, Ann Cannon, George Q. Cannon, William Farrar, Elizabeth Cole Holmes, Robert Holmes, Elizabeth Ann Horne, Henry James Horne, Joseph Horne, Joseph Smith Horne, Mary Isabelle Horne, Richard Stephen Horne, Ann Kelly, John Mackay, James I. Orr, Elizabeth Pugmire, Hannah Pugmire, John Pugmire, Jonathan Pugmire, Joseph Hyrum Pugmire, Mary Pugmire, Helenora Symonds, William Symonds, Annie B. Taylor, Elizabeth K. Taylor, George J. Taylor, Jane Ballantyne Taylor, John Taylor, Joseph Taylor, Leonora Cannon Taylor, Mary Ann Taylor, Mary Ann Taylor, Sophia Whittaker Taylor, Maria L. Woodward, and Alexander Wright.
Included in the second ten led by Abraham Hoagland were: Dorcas Millikin Andrews, Simeon Andrews, Elizabeth Cain, Joseph Cain, Job Harker, Joseph Henry Harker, Susannah Sneath Harker, Abraham Elias Lucas Hoagland, Elizabeth Hoagland, Emily Hoagland, John Hoagland, Margaret Quick Hoagland, Peter Hoagland, Isabella Leach, James Leach, Elizabeth DeGroat Oakley, Ezra Hemstead Nassau Oakley, John DeGroat Oakley, Margaret S. Oakley, Mary Elizabeth Oakley, Mary M. Oakley, Abigail Parsons Robinson, Isaac P. Robinson, John Robinson Jr., John Robinson Sr., Lawrence Robinson, Sarah Abigail Robinson, Adelia West, Chauncey West, Mary West, Emeline Whittaker, George Whittaker, and Harriet Whittaker.
Included in the third ten led by Archibald Gardner were: Abigail Sprague Bradford, Ithamer Bradford, Mariana Bradford, Pleasant Sprague Bradford, Rawsel Bradford, Sylvester Bradford, Triphenia Bradford, Andrew Correy, George Correy, Janet Correy, Margaret Clemmie Correy, Archibald Gardner, Jane McKeown Gardner, Janet Gardner, Janet Gardner, John Gardner, Margaret Gardner, Margaret Gardner, Margaret Callander Gardner, Margaret Livingston Gardner, Mary Jane Gardner, Neil Gardner, Niel Livingston Gardner, Robert Gardner, Robert Gardner, Robert Gardner, Robert Pierson Gardner, William Gardner, William Gardner, Mary Luckham, Mary Gardner Luckham, Roger Luckham, Agnes Duncan Park, Andrew Duncan Park, Hugh Duncan Park, James Duncan Park, Jane Duncan Park, Jane Duncan Park, John Duncan Park, Marian Ellen Park, Mary Ann Park, William Duncan Park, William Park Sr., Dolly Sprague, Hezekiah Sprague, Margaret Sweeten, and Robert Sweeten.
Included in the fourth ten led by William Taylor were: Elizabeth Arrowsmith, John Taylor Arrowsmith, Angeline B.W. Bennion, Ann Bennion, Esther W. Bennion, Hyrum Bennion, John Bennion, John R. Bennion, Mary Bushell Bennion, Mary Panter Bennion, Samuel Bennion, Samuel Roberts Bennion, Jane Cole, John Cole, Mary Ann Cole, William Cole, William Fields, Mary Jones, Ann Mackay, Ann Mackay, John Mackay, Thomas Mackay, Catherine Quail, Catherine Quail, Henry Quail, John Quail Jr., John Quail Sr., Thomas Quail, William Quail, Anges Rich, Elizabeth Rich, John Taylor Rich, Samuel Taylor Rich, Agnes Taylor, James Taylor, Lovina Taylor, William Taylor, John Topham, Catherine Turbet, Eleanor Turbet, John Turbet, Nephi Turbet, Thomas Turbet Jr., and Thomas Turbet Sr.
Included in the fifth ten led by Thomas Orr Sr. were: Elizabeth Albern Babcock, Dolphus Babcock, George Babcock, Jerusha Jane Babcock, John Babcock, Lucy Babcock, Permelia Babcock, David Blackhurst, Ellen Blackhurst, Joseph B. Blackhurst, William Blackhurst, Catherine Orr, Isabella Orr, May Ann Orr, Thomas Orr Jr., Thomas Orr Sr., Jane Park, John Park, Louisa Park, Louisa Park, Marian Park, Mary Ann Park, Ann Pitchforth, Mary Mitchell Pitchforth, Mercy Pitchforth, Samuel Pitchforth, Sarah Barbara Pitchforth, Francis Pullin, Hannah Pullin, and Edward Tattersall.
29Included in the first ten led by Lauren H. Roundy were: Celestia Ann Farr, Enoch Farr, Lorin Farr, Nancy Bailey Chase Farr, Persis Atherton Farr, Alvin Harding, Joseph L. Harding, Violette Otis Harding, Emma B. Harrington, Leonard Ellsworth Harrington, Loise Russell Harrington, Theodore Spencer Harrington, William Peacock, Byron Donalvin Roundy, Jared Curtis Roundy, Lauren H. Roundy, Lorenzo Wesley Roundy, Myron Shadrach Roundy, Betsey Roundy, Nancy J. Roundy, Susannah Roundy, William Heber Roundy, Abigail Thorne Russell, Esther Russell, Francis Maria Russell, Helen Russell, Henry Russell, Maria Russell, Samuel Russell, Valasco Russell, Olive Hovey Walker, and Peter Winward.
Included in the second ten led by Amasa Russell were: Samuel Brown, Amanda Chipman, Beulah Chipman, William Henry Chipman, James Chipman, Martha Elizabeth Chipman, Sinah Ceneth Chipman, Stephen Chipman, Washburn Chipman, Adam McDonald, Seth Rigby, Amasa Russell, Andrew Jackson Russell, Ann Russell, David Dudley Russell, Hannah Knight Russell, Henry Madison Russell, Elijah Shockley, Elijah H. Shockley, Elijah S. Shockley, James D. Shockley, Lidy F. Shockley, Mary Shockley, Mary E. Shockley, Matilda Ann Shockley, Richard Shockley, Helen S. Thorn, Joseph Thorn, Joseph C. Thorn, and Lorena Thorn.
Included in the third ten led Farnum Kinyon were: John Adams, John Harris Henderson, Farnum Kinyon, George B. Kinyon, Hyrum Kinyon, Lucinda Kinyon, William H. Kinyon, Ann McMinds, Emily Ann McMinds, James McMinds, William McMinds, Elizabeth Meeks, Peggy J. Meeks, Pridy Meeks, Sarah Meeks, Louisa Norris, Betsy Persons, Carlos Shephard, Charity Shephard, Lydia Shephard, Samuel Shepherd, Charles Swarthout, George W. Swarthout, Horley Swarthout, and Tramand Swarthout.
30The men appointed to stay behind even voted that they did not want Brother Glines to stay behind. He later repented and would follow after the pioneers, camping alone and with a Missouri company until he rejoined the pioneers on June 26.
31Included in the first ten led by James Smith were: Margaret Frosgreen, Lafayette Granger, Fales Hancall, Ursula B. Hancall, Peter O. Hanson, Mary Ellen Harris, Harriet Higbee, John Mount Higbee, Judith H. Higbee, Sarah Higbee, Silas Somers Higbee, John Chatfield Leonard, Jane W. Matthews, Susan Noble, John Peacock, Elias Fraser Pearson, Francella E. Pomeroy, Irene U. Pomeroy, Levi Savage, Mathew Savage, James Smithies, Mary Smithies, Nancy Ann Smithies, Robert Smithies, Joshua Terry, George Benjamin Wallace, Mary McMurphy Wallace, Melissa M. King Wallace, and Jacob Weatherby.
Included in the second ten led by Samuel Rolfe were: Ephemia Bouck, John A. Bouck, Elijah Clifford, James J. Davidson, Albert Corning Dewey, Harriet Adams Dewey, John Henry Dewey, Mariah Dewey, Joseph Dunlap, Elnathan Eldredge, Elnathan Eldredge Jr., Frederick Baker Eldredge, Joseph Underwood Eldredge, Ruth Baker Eldredge, Sarah Eldredge, Pliny Fisher, Abigail E. Gibbs, Gideon Hayden Carter Gibbs, Samuel R. Knight, Eliza Lee, Matthew A. Lee, Elizabeth Rolfe, Horace Cowin Rolfe, Mary Ann Elizabeth Rolfe, Samuel Jones Rolfe, Samuel Jones Rolfe Jr., William Jasper Rolfe, John Sinrie, Charlotte Frost Train, Chauncey Turner, Hannah Turner, Harriet M. Turner, Henry Moroni Turner, John Wesley Turner, Julia Turner, Elizabeth Walker, John Wixom, John D. Woolley, John Mills Woolley, and Maria Lucy Dewey Woolley.
Included in the third ten led by Joseph Mount were: Margaret Bryson, Charles Hart, John Hart, Archibald Newell Hill, Dorcas Adelia Moor Kingsbury, Joseph Corroden Kingsbury, Louisa Loenra Alcina Pond Kingsbury, James Lawson, David Lewis, Annis L. Moor, Charles H. Moor, Elizabeth M. Moor, George W. Moor, Mahala D. Higby Moor, Mary L. Moor, Thomas Moor, Elizabeth B. Bessad Mount, Joseph Mount, Mary Jane Mount, Almina Pond, Stilman Pond, Urban Van Stewart, ‑‑‑‑‑‑‑‑ Thompson, R. Thompson, Henrietta Keyes Whitney, Samuel Alonzo Whitney, Andrew Wood, Jane Wood, Arin Woodberry, Catherine Woodberry, John Woodberry, Matilda Woodberry, Elizabeth Bartlett Woodbury, Hannah Marie Woodbury, Jeremiah Woodbury, John Stillman Woodbury, and Thomas H. Woodbury.
Included in the fourth ten led by John Nebeker were: Elizabeth Bowen Blackburn, Jehu Blackburn, Julia Ann Jameson Blackburn, Charles O. Chase, Charles S. Chase, Sarah M. Chase, Susan Sterns Chase, Elizabeth Davis, Mariah Davis, Barbara Fitzerald, John Fitzgerald, Mary Ann Cosatt Fitzgerald, Martha Ann Henderson, Elizabeth Klineman, Mariah Lane, William P. Lane, Lemuel W. Merrill, George Murdock, Gideon Allen Murdock, John Murdock, Mary C. Murdock, Sarah Murdock, Aaron Nebeker, Ann Van Wagener Nebeker, Ashton Nebeker, Elizabeth Nebeker, George Nebeker, Henry Nebeker, Ira Nebeker, John Nebeker, Lurena Fitzgerald Nebeker, Mary Ann Nebeker, Peter Nebeker, Rose1la Nebeker, William Henry Nebeker, William Perry Nebeker, Christianna Kull Riser, George Christian Riser, Joseph H. Riser, Mary Ann Riser, Ann Stidham, David Stidham, William Stidham, Daniel D. Wheeler, John J. Wheeler, Joseph S. Wheeler, Lueyann Wheeler, Margaret Wheeler, Martha Willis Wheeler, Thomas J. Wheeler, W. W. Wheeler, Ann Cherry Willis, John H. Willis, Josephine Willis, Joshua Thomas Willis, Margaret Cherry Willis, Margaret Martha Willis, Mary Lucretia Willis, Thomas J. Willis, and William Wesley Willis.
Included in the fifth ten led by Saumel Turnbow were: Andrew Jackson Allen, Delilah Andrews Allen, Margaret M. Allen, Martha E. Allen, Martha Evans Allen, Pumecy F. Allen, William Coleman Allen, John Armstrong, Joseph H. Armstrong, Mary Armstrong, Sarah Benbow, Thomas Benbow, Sarah Carter, William Cavit, Hyrum S. Church, Sarah Ann Arterbury Church, Emily Harris, William Harris, Cynthia Utley Stewart Hill, George Richard Hill, George Washington Hill, James Jackson, Mary Ann Jackson, Ezekeil Keelog, John Miles, Abraham Owen Smoot, Margaret Thompson McMeans Smoot, Delpha Jones Steward, Randolph H. Steward, Akmedia Stewart, Benjamin Franklin Stewart, Caroline Stewart, China Ann Stewart, David Stewart, Eliza Jane Stewart, Elizabeth Stewart, George Rufus Stewart, Lawrence Stewart, James Wesley Stewart, John Calvin Stewart, Joseph Virgil Stewart, Joshua Lawrence Stewart, Mary Eveline Stewart, Mary Jane Stewart, Nancy Lorena Stewart, Polly Richardson Stewart, Ruthinda Emma Stewart, William Stewart, William Anderson Stewart, Saphrona Ellen Turnbow, Epsy Adaline Turnbow, John Gillenroy Turnbow, Milton Octabis Turnbow, Robert Franklin Turnbow, Samuel Turnbow, Silvira Caroline Hart Turnbow, and Aphek Woodruff.
32Included in the first ten led by Asahel A. Lathrop were: Charles William Allen, Helen Rebecca Allen, Susan Ann Ashley, John O. Augers, George Ogden Chase, Harriet Louise Chase, Isaac Chase, Phoebe Chase, Jacob Cloward, Charles Franklin Decker, Vilate Young Decker, James I. Duncan, Charlotte E. Ellsworth, Edmund William Ellsworth, Elizabeth Young Ellsworth, John R. Frink, Milton Howe, Asahel A. Lathrop Jr., Hannah Cope Lathrop, Hannah Peacock Lathrop, Horace H. Lathrop, Jane Lathrop, Mary Jane Lathrop, Sarah A. Lathrop, George Edwin Little, Harriet Amelia Decker Little, Asahel Albert Lothrop, Eliza Leonard Rosecrans, Clarence A. Scofield, Joseph S. Scofield, Samuel A. Shaw, Asanah Weeks, Caroline Allen Weeks, William Weeks, Israel West, Franklin Wheeler Young, John Ray Young, and Susan Ann Ashby Young.
Included in the second ten led by Robert Peirce were: William Baldwin, Joseph H. Boyington Sr., William D. Connogg, Eliza Wollerton Dilworth, John Taylor Dilworth, Maria Louisa Dilworth, Zenos Dodge, Drusilla Dorris Hendricks, Elizabeth Mahala Hendricks, James Hendricks, Joseph Smith Hendricks, Katherine Tabitha Henricks, Rebecca Hendricks, William Miles, Edith Evaline Peirce, Eli Harvey Peirce, Hannah Harvey Peirce, Robert Peirce, Thomas Peirce, William Peirce, Ann Elizabeth Riter, Levi Riter, Rebecca Wollerton Riter, Samuel W. Riter, William W. Riter, Eliza Roxey Snow, Loven Weeks, Catherine Weller, Elijah Malin Weller, Joseph Weller, Lydia Ann Weller, Margaret P. Whiteside, Brigham Hamilton Young, Cedonia Cey Young, Joseph Watson Young, and Seraph C. Young.
Included in the third ten led by Hazen Kimball were: Elihu Allen, Elihu Moroni Allen, Helen Allen, John M. Allen, Joseph Brigham Allen, Lola Allen, Lola Elizabeth Allen, Phebe Ann Allen, Anderson Shaffer Ewing, Eliza Matilda Ewing, Esther Ewing, Harry Ewing, John Jackson Ewing, Mary Adaline Ewing, Rachel Ewing, Samuel Ewing, Samuel Porter Ewing, William Harvey Ewing, Decinda Kimball, George Hazen Kimball, Hazen Kimball, Hellen Adelaide Kimball, James Shaw, Laura A. Shaw, George Sidwell, Job Sidwell, John Sidwell, Peggy Ann Sidwell, Rebecca Catherine Sidwell, Susan Robinson Sidwell, Kophenah Weeks, William Weeks, Elizabeth Willey, and James Grey Willey.
Included in the fourth ten led by Amos Neff were: Abigail Leavitt Baker, Albert Mowry Baker, Amenzo White Baker, Benjamin Baker, Betsy Baker, Charlotte Leavitt Baker, George Washington Baker, Jarvis Young Baker, Joseph Baker, Lydia Rebecca Baker, Sarah Baker, Simon Baker, Elvira Holmes, Sarah Elizabeth Holmes, Lucinda Howd, Martha Jane Howd, Simeon Howd, Emeline Levett, George Levett, Louisa Levett, Phebe Levett, Barbara Neff Moses, Julian Moses, Amos Herr Neff, Benjamin Barr Neff, Elizabeth Neff, John Neff II, John, Neff III, Mary Ann Neff, Mary Barr Neff, Susannah Neff, Ann J. Owen, Elizabeth Pickle Owen, Seeley Owen, Richard Shockley, Samuel Stow, and William Stow.
Included in the fifth ten led by by Josiah Miller were: Martha E. Ashby, Moses Gifford, Israel Hoyt, Andrew Love, Elizabeth Angeline Love, Nancy Maria Bigelow Love, William Mason, Amanda Miller, Clarissa Amanda Miller, Emily Miller, Harriett Miller, Josiah H. Miller, Lamoni Miller, Anna Noble, Edward Alvah Noble, George 0. Noble, Joseph Bates Noble, Mary Adeline Noble, Richard Smith Norwood, Emily Jane Woodard, Henry Woodard, Jedidiah Stark Woodard, Martha Woodard, Chas. M. Woodward, and Emily Woodward.
33Included in the first ten led by John Vance were: George W. Bean, Samuel Bird, Sarah Casper, Sarah Ann Casper, Caroline Grant, Caroline Van Dyke Grant, Jedediah Morgan Grant, Margaret S. Grant, Nathaniel G. Green, James Hawkins, Sarah Hawkins, Gabriel Mayberry, Rosetta Robinson, F.H. Shedd, Louisa Minerly Shumway, Mary Eliza Shumway, Geneva M. St. John, Hally St. John, Lydia C. St. John, Isaac Young Vance, John Alma Vance, John Vance Jr., Martha Eleanor Yager Vance, Martha Jane Vance, Mary E. Vance, Mary Francis Vance, Nancy Ann Vance, Sarah Jane Vance, Hannah L. Wardsworth, Francis M. Williams, and Martha J. Williams.
Included in the second ten led by Thomas Thurston were: Emily M. Case, Hannah Ward Case, Solomon Cowles Case, Mary Cook, Washington M. Cook, Abigail Leonard, Lyman Leonard, James Richey, Lucinda Mangum Richey, Ann Coleman Smith, Jane Dunds Thomas, Madison Thomas, Wiley Thomas, Caroline Rozalia Thurston, George Washington Thurston, Harriet Elizabeth Thurston, Hulda Cordelia Thurston, Johnson Thurston, Julia Rosetta Thurston, Lucy Jane Thurston, Moses Thurston, Rosetta Bull Thurston, Sarah Ann Thurston, Smith Butler Thurston, Thomas Jefferson Thurston, John Young, and Mary Ann Young.
Included in the third ten led by Jacob Gates were: Nancy Badger, Ann Wollerton Dilworth Bringhurst, William Bringhurst, Highimsol Call, Maria J. Carrington, Ruby M. Carrington, Charles Crisman, Charles Crisman, Emily Percinda Crisman, George Crisman, Hester Ann Crisman, Mary Hill Crisman, Martha Jane Crisman, Mary Ann Crisman, Samantha Crisman, Mary Jane Dilworth, Abner W. Garr, Benjamin Franklin Garr, Caroline Martin Garr, Fielding Garr, John Turner Garr, Mary Virginia Garr, Sarah Anna Garr, William Henry Garr, Jacob Gates, Mary Wheeler Gates, Joseph McDavis, Vienne Rebsey, Amanda Melvina Snow, Melvina Harvey Snow, Susan Harvey Snow, Willard Snow, and Willard Lycurgas Snow.
Included in the fourth ten led by John B. Fairbanks were: Adelaid Everett, Alanson Schuyler Everett, Mary P. Everett, Orpha Maria Redfield Everett, Cornelius Mandeville Fairbanks, David Fairbanks, Harriet Fairbanks, John Boylston Fairbanks, Mary Jane Fairbanks, Polly Brooks Fairbanks, Sarah Van Wagoner Fairbanks, Susan (Susanna) Mandeville Fairbanks, Susan I. Fairbanks, William Henry Fairbanks, Elizabeth Hudson Hendricks Grundy, Isaac Grundy, Sarah Hendricks, William Hyde, Daniel Webster Morris, Halma Van Wagenen Smith, Hannah Van Wagenen Smith, Hyrum Van Wagenen Smith, James H. Smith, John Van Wagenen Smith, Josiah Smith, Mary E. Smith, Sarah Ann Smith, Charles Sperry, Elizabeth Sperry, Ellen I. Sperry, Harrison Sperry, William Lamont Sperry, and Sarah Summey.
Included in the fifth ten led by Simpson D. Huffaker were: Samuel Brown, Elam Cheney Sr., Hannah Cheney, Alice Houghton Greenwood, Benjamin Young Greenwood, Joseph Greenwood, Margaret Greenwood, William Greenwood, Elizabeth Melvina Huffaker, Granville W. Huffaker, Lewis Albert Huffaker, Rosella Huffaker, Sarah M. Huffaker, Sidney Elizabeth Huffaker, Simpson David Huffaker, Alexander Campbell Molen, Docia Emerine Molen, Francis Marion Molen, Genevra Ellen Molen, Hannah Elizabeth MoLen, James Wesley MoLen, Jesse Molen, Laurany Molen, Margaret Ann Molen, Martha Melvina Molen, Mary Erepta Molen, Michael Webster Molen, Simpson Montgomery Molen, Sophronia Rosanna Molen, Sarah Topham, Edmond Wattis, and John Wattis.
34Included in the first ten led by Ariah C. Brower were: Abraham Boswell, Franklin Brown, Henry Jacob Brown, Harriet Fairbanks Doremus, Henry J. Doremus, Martha Zabriskie Doremus, Anna Foutz, Catherine Foutz, Elizabeth Foutz, Jacob Foutz, Jacob Foutz Jr., Joseph Lehi Foutz, Margaret Mann Foutz, Margaret Foutz, Elizabeth Scearce Laney, George Calvert Laney, Sarah Ann Laney, William Laney, Isaac Leany, Margaret E. Leany, Sarah Ann Leany, Phebe Odle Merrill, Samuel Merrill, Will Wallace Merrill, Jemima Morris, William Scearce, Ann Eliza Logan Secrist, Jacob Foutz Secrist, Louisa Secrist, Leonard Stump, Absalom Woolf, Andrew Woolf, Hannah Eliza Woolf, Isaac Woolf, James Woolf, John Anthony Woolf, John Anthony Woolf, Sarah Ann Woolf, and Sarah Ann Devoe Woolf.
Included in the second ten led by Alva Keller were: Berrill Covington, Nathaniel Morgan Dodge, Sarah Melissa Dodge, Frederic Heath, Henry Heath, Thomas Heath, Ann Hunter, Ann Eliza Stanley Hunter, Edward Hunter, Mary Ann Hunter, Sarah Ann Hunter, Alva Keller, Nancy Ann Keller, Roxey Keller, Susanna Mann, Sarah Ann Whitney Potter, Gardner Godrey Potter, William George Potter, William. W. Potter, William Starrett, and Henry Tuttle.
Included in the third ten led by Vincent Shurtliff were: Fred R. Bainbridge, Lemon Brunson, Lorinda Brunson, Martha Brunson, Wilmer Brunson, Albert Galatin Fellows, Amelia Maria Fellows, Cornelia Fellows, Phebe Louisa Fellows, William H. Fellows, Mary E. Hadlock, Louisa J. Hall, Newton Daniel Hall, Newton Daniel Hall, Sarah Jane Busenbark Hall, Abigail McBride, John McBride, Lamira McBride, Lydia McBride, Samuel McBride, Samuel McBride, Sarah Montice, Ellen M. Rice, Ira Rice, Lucy Witters Geer Rice, William Kelsey Rice, Charles W. Shipping, Elizabeth Shurtliff, Emerson D. Shurtliff, Harrison T. Shurtliff, Hiram C. Shurtliff, Susan Shurtliff, Susan E. Shurtliff, Vincent Shurtliff, Francenia Lucy Tuttle, Hobert Tuttle, Lucy Loomis Tuttle.
Included in the fourth ten led by Daniel M. Thomas were: Albert Washington Collins, Adeline Sarah Collins, Susan Newman Thomas Collins, Elizabeth Lemon Covington, Emily J. Covington, John Thomas Covington, Robert Dockery Covington, Sarah A. Mathews, James Nicholas Mathis, Mary C. Mathis, Martha Noab, John Robertson, Ann Thomas, Ann Thomas, Catherine Thomas, Daniel Monroe Thomas, Henry Thomas, John T. Thomas, Mahala J. Thomas, Phi Lemon Thomas, Tennessee Thomas, Calysta W. Warrick, Louisa Warrick, and Thomas Warrick.
Included in the fifth ten led by John Lowry were: Abner Lowry, George Moroni Lowry, John Lowry, John Lowry Jr., Mary Lowry, Mary Artimesia Lowry, Sarah Jane Lowry, Susan Lucretia Lowry, Catherine Ann Williams Owens, Jarone Owens, Nephi Owens, Edwin Pettit, Mary Pettit, Clarissa Jane Wilcox Seely, David Randolph Seely, Don Carlos Seely, Elizabeth Seely, Elizabeth DeHart Seely, Emily Seely, Justus Azel Seely, Justus W. Seely, Mehitable Bennett Seely, Orange Seely, Sarah Seely, William Stewart Seely, Henry Wilcox, Sarah Wilcox, Anna Young, Betsy Young, Elizabeth Young, Hannah Young, James Young, John Young, Mary Young, and Sally Young.
35Included in the first ten led by Elijah F. Sheets were: John Beck, Hannah Jane Brown, Isaac Brown, Isaac F. Brown, Isaac Burnham, George Henry Crosby, Hannah Elida Baldwin Crosby, Jesse W. Crosby, Arthur Richardson, Darwin Charles Richardson, Jane Cyrene Richardson, Olive Tharden Richardson, Solon Darwin Richardson, Carlos Lyon Sessions, David Sessions, Lucina Sessions, Martha Ann Sessions, Mary Sessions, Patty Bartlett Sessions, Perrigrine Sessions, Elijah Funk Sheets, Susanna Musser Sheets, Joseph A. Stratton, Mary Ann Stratton, and Thomas Siris Terry.
Included in the second ten led by John Van Cott were: Abigail Abbott, Ann Marsh Abbott, Joseph Abbott, Lewis Abbott, Thomas Marsh Abbott, John Beer, Luther V. Burglow, James Clements, Benjamin Denton, Alma Pratt, Ann Agatha Walker Pratt, Belinda Marden Pratt, Elizabeth Brotherton Pratt, Hannahetta Pratt, Helaman Pratt, Julia Pratt, Martha Pratt, Mary Wood Pratt, Nephi Pratt, Parley Pratt, Parley Parker Pratt, Phoebe E. Sopher Pratt, Sarah Houston Pratt, Franceayna Rogers, Isaac Rogers, Isaac Rogers Jr., Mary Miranda White Rogers, Isaac Thomas, Matilda A. Thomas, John Van Cott, Lovinia Jemima Pratt Van Cott, Lucy Lavinia Sackett Van Cott, Martha Van Cott, and Mary Van Cott.
Included in the third ten led by Elijah K. Fuller were: James Brinkerhoff, Janette Brinkerhoff, Mary Ann Brinkerhoff, Sally Ann Snyder Brinkerhoff, Caroline Clara Smith Callister, Helen Mar Callister, Helen Mar Clark Callister, Thomas Callister, John Everett, Sarah Ann Everett, Catherine Walker Fuller, Cornelius Fuller, Elijah Fuller, Elijah Knapp Fuller, Revilo Fuller, Willys Darwin Fuller, Alfred Boaz Lambson, Melissa Jane Lambson, Melissa Jane Bigler Lambson, Alexander Abraham Lemon, Ann Elizabeth Lemon, John Knox Lemon, Katherine Mayer Lemon, Margaretta Lemon, Mary Ann Lemon, William McClure Lemon, Eunice Sibley Bliss Moore, Harriet Moore, Samuel Moore, Sophronia Moore, Stephen Bliss Moore, Margaret Sears, William Sears, Agusta B. Cleveland Smith, Clarissa Lyman Smith, Jesse Nathaniel Smith, John Smith, John Lyman Smith, Mary Akins Smith, Silas Sanford Smith, and Tomazin Woodward.
Included in the fourth ten led by William Leffingwell were: Alfred C. Beach, Cordelia Beach, Laura H. Gibbs Beach, Rufus Beach, Sarah Cole Beach, Caroline Conrad, Amos Gustin, George W. Gustin, Jane Pristine Gustin, Mary Gustin, Mary Peterson Gustin, Nancy Bruster Gustin, Susannah Gustin, Thomas Gustin, Thomas Jefferson Gustin, Elizabeth Holden, William Riley Holden, Warner Johnson, Adam Leffingwell, Caroline M. Leffingwell, Cynthia Leffingwell, Eunice Leffingwell, Joseph Lyman Leffingwell, Mary J. Leffingwell, Roxana Matilda Leffingwell, William Leffingwell, William Leffingwell Jr., Amanda Savage, David Leonard Savage, Mary Abigail White Savage, Mary Theodoria Savage, Margaret Singley, Nicholas Singley, Alva West, Norman S. Williams, and Tabitha York.
Included in the fifth ten led by Asa Barton were: Asa Barton, Mary Barton, Elizabeth Harris Browett, Harriet Browett, Solomon Chase, Sarah Ann Dewitt, Elizabeth Gates, George Gates, Samuel Newton Henderson, Sarah Holden, Asa B. Hunter, Jesse Hunter, Keziah Hunter, Martha Hunter, Mary B. Hunter, Samuel Hunter, Elizabeth A. Matthews, Elizabeth Jane Matthews, Emma Louise Matthews, Ezekial Cunningham Matthews, John Lynn Matthews, Maria Marcissa Matthews, Nancy Melissa Matthews, Thomas Marion Matthews, William Matthews, James Kemp McClenahan, Nancy McClenahan, Armenus Miller, Silas Miller, Fanny Parish, Joel Parish, Priscilla Parish, Samuel Parish, Clarinda Pollock, James Pollock, Priscilla Pollock, Thomas Pollock, Aaron Dunham Thatcher, Alley Kitchen Thatcher, George Washington Thatcher, Harriet Ann Thatcher, Hezekiah Thatcher, Hyrum Smith Thatcher, John Bethuel Thatcher, Joseph Wykoff Thatcher, Katherine Mary Thatcher, and Moses Thatcher.
36The Perry family later settled in Springville, Utah.
37present‑day Horse Creek
38Francis M. Pomeroy was born in 1822, in Connecticut. His later joined his wife in the second pioneer company. They settled in the Twelfth Ward in Salt Lake City. He later helped settle Paris, Idaho and still later, the Salt River Valley in Arizona. He died in Mesa, Arizona, in 1883.
39The Simons family later settled in Payson, Utah, where Orrawell would serve as mayor and a counselor in the bishopric.
40When the Donner‑Reed survivors had been brought here in February, there had been two feet of snow on the ground. Their rescuers had shoveled away a large circle and put down pine boughs for the emigrants to sleep on. Some of the emigrants had stayed at the Bear Valley Camp for a couple days before they were taken on to Johnson’s ranch. Thirty‑six of the eighty emigrants perished.
41The rock was discovered by trappers on July 4, 1830 and named “Register of the Desert” by Father De Smet because of all the names written on it.
42Sodium bicarbonate -- Baking soda.
43The Oregon‑California Trails Association located “Norton Jacob 47" among 1,300 names. Norton Jacob was a member of the pioneer company.
44Present‑day Sun Ranch.
45Included in the first ten led by Ebenezer G. Cherry were: Aaron Benjamin Cherry, Aaron Benjamin Cherry, Amelia Mariah Cherry, Caroline S. Cherry, Ebenezer Griffin Cherry, Ebenezer Griffin Cherry Jr., Edward Rittenhouse Cherry, John James Cherry, Lesa Y. Cherry, Margaret Mary Yelton Cherry, Mary Margarett Cherry, Mary Rebecca Cherry, Nancy Ann Cherry, Rebecca Ann Cherry, Sarah Jane Cherry, Susannah Evertson Cherry, Thomas Rittenhouse Cherry, Harvey Clark, Nancy Minerva Earl, Christopher Jacobs, Mary Jane Judson, Timothy Judson, Thomas Mibs, John President Porter, Joseph Rich Porter, Nancy Rich Porter, Sanford Colton Porter, Charles Coulson Rich, Charles Coulson Rich, Eliza Ann Graves Rich, Emeline Grover Rich, Harriet Sargent Rich, Hyrum S. Rich, John Thomas Rich, Joseph Rich, Joseph Coulson Rich, Mary Ann Phelps Rich, Mary Bratten Rich, Nancy O’Neal Rich, Sarah DeArmon Pea Rich, Sarah Jan Rich, Sarah Jane Peck Rich, Alexander Morain Shoemaker, Ezra Shoemaker, Jeptha Shoemaker, Jerusha Shoemaker, Jessenell Shoemaker, Lucinda J. Shoemaker, Margaret Taylor Shoemaker, Marion Shoemaker, Nancy Golden Shoemaker, Sarah Shoemaker, Theo. Shoemaker, and James R. Young.
Included in the second ten led by James S. Holman were: Aaron Emeline Rebecca Adair, George Washington Adair, Joseph Adair, Lucinda Jane Adair, Miriam Billingsley Adair, Rebecca Mangum Adair, Aaron H. Conover, Adelia Belinda Cox, Almer Bingley Cox, Elvira Pamela Mills Cox, Orville Southerland Cox, Orlando Herrin, James Sawyer Holman, Amy R. Jackman, Eliza Jane Mangum, James Mitchel Mangum, Matthew Mansfield, Morgan A. Mansfield, Charles Edward Robison, Clarissa Minerva Duzette Robison, Lewis Seth Robison, Solon W. Robison, Lucinda Wilson, Catherine Wingate, Cyrus Wingate, Zenos Wingate, Alphonzo Winget, Malvina Winget, and Cornelius Workman.
Included in the third ten led by Edward Stevenson were: Hannah E. McCullouch Baird, John Baird, Adaline B. Benson, Samuel G. Benson, Amos C. Dewel, Eliza A. Dewell, Mary Dewell, Mercy Ann Dewell, Minerva Dewell, Osman M. Dewell, William H. Dewell, James Dickens, Adaline Grover, Caroline Grover, Eliza Ann Grover, Hannah Grover, Hannah Tupper Grover, Lodoska Grover, Mary Elizabeth Grover, Thomas Grover, Thomas Grover Jr., Mary E. Hoffheins, Vienna Jacques, Abiah Johnson, Ira S. Miles, Mary Kilburn Bent Miles, Charles R. Oakey, Edward Oakey, Heber B. Oakey, John Oakey, Elizabeth Melissa Perry, Grace Ann Williams Perry, John Perry, Lyman Wight Porter, Nancy Arrita Porter, Nathan Tanner Porter, Sanford Porter, Jane Sherwood, Joseph Sidwell, Edward Stevenson, Nancy Areta Porter Stevenson, Nephi Porter Stevenson, Albert Leonard Stoddard, and Arvin M. Stoddard.
46Charles Alfred Harper was born in 1816, in Pennsylvania. After arriving in the Salt Lake Valley, he returned to Winter Quarters in the fall. He brought his family to the valley the following year. They settled in Holladay where he started the first public school in the area. He died in 1900.
47William Smith asked again in 1855, but Brigham Young probably did not reply. In 1856, William wrote a bitter letter, but again asked for reconciliation later. In 1860, William Smith was rebaptized by J.J. Butler and he stated intentions to go to Utah, but he stayed behind as the RLDS church finally convinced Joseph Smith III to be their president.
48They camped just west of present‑day Jeffrey City, Wyoming.
49Brigham Young’s pioneer company was at this location on April 20. The distance from Winter Quarters was sixty‑two miles. They crossed over the creek on a poor bridge and located a vast prairie dog village nearby. In William Clayton’s emigrant guide he wrote: “After this you will probably find no water for twelve miles, without turning considerably from the road.”
50John Greeenleaf Holman was born in 1828, in New York. After arriving in the Salt Lake Valley, he returned to Winter Quarters. He married and went west again in 1850. He served a mission to England in 1862-63. He later settled in Rexburg, Idaho. He died there in 1888.
51This was the first camp used when the Saints crossed the Missouri almost a year earlier.
52The Perry family later settled in Perry, Utah, where Orrin Perry served as the bishop.
53During the day the pioneers passed by the site where the Willie handcart company would be rescued in 1856. Seventy‑seven people perished in the company.
54During the day, the companies passed by the site of the new Pawnee Village where Brigham Young’s company had encountered many Pawnee on April 12, 1847. Evidently the Pawnee were away on a hunt or had moved the village because no mention is made of encounters with large groups of Indians.
55Little Robert Gardner would not recover. During the next month he grew thinner and thinner, and he died on August 18, 1847, and buried in a shallow grave.
56In present‑day southeastern Idaho.
57He described a route through the future site of Martin’s Cove and through the Great Divide Basin. Sadly, the Martin Handcart company would become blocked by snow in this area, in October of 1856. They took refuge at Martin’s Cove, a few miles southwest of Devil’s Gate.
58Reuben McBride was an official for the Church, left in charge of the Kirtland temple and other Church properties in Kirtland.
59John Sherman Fowler was born in 1819, in New York. He settled in Salt Lake City and later moved to San Bernardino, California. He died there in 1860.
60Jacob Weiler was born in 1808, in Pennsylvania. After arriving in the Salt Lake Valley, he returned and met his family in the second pioneer company. On returning to the valley, he built a cabin on the northeast corner of pioneer square. He later served as the bishop of the Third Ward in Salt Lake City. He died in 1896.
61Sarah Kelly was the widow of Milton Kelly, who died at Pueblo. A son, Parley Kelly had been born while at Pueblo.
62Brother Hyde later wrote in his journal: “It grieved me to see some of our officers seeking after power and filthy lucre at the bitter expense of their brethren . . . for us to enter service for another year for the purpose of gratifying the selfish feelings of any man or set of men, was entirely repugnant to my feeling.”
63The crossing point was near present‑day Lombard Buttes, near the Highway 28 bridge.
64One of the men was Charles Smith “of the firm of Jackson Heaton & Bonney, bogus makers of Nauvoo.” Historians have erroneously thought the other man to be Isaac Goodwin, but Addison Pratt’s journal reveals the Brother Goodwin was at New Hope, California.
65Near present‑day Pocatello, Idaho
66They probably had Colorado tick fever.