Sunday July 2 - Saturday, July 8, 1848
The High Council decided that a work detail would be raised do work on a new road for the emigrant pioneers coming into the valley. They also passed a new resolution: "No person shall ride or drive through the Forts or their lanes faster than a slow trot under a penalty of $1.00 for each offence."
See a list of the 1848 pioneers at http://lds-gems.com/archive/150/1848.html
The pioneers rested on Sunday. The men dried buffalo meat and fixed their wagons. In the afternoon, a two-hour meeting was held between Brigham Young's and Heber C. Kimball's camps. A choir sang "How will the Saints Rejoice to Tell."
On Monday the huge company of pioneers resumed their long journey at 7:30 a.m. Hiram Gates' wagon broke down. Daniel Burch and others kindly help him repair it. Only a few buffalo were seen during the day. Many of the Saints picked up "buffalo wool." They would use this to make clothing. The camp retired to the noise of many wolves howling in the distance.
On Tuesday the pioneers came in contact with a herd of buffalo. Thomas Bullock wrote: "When we had descended into the vale, [we] came in sight of a band of about 200 Buffalo. They stood still until many of the men, women & children ran too near them, when they started off on a gallop, taking the side hill in the same direction as we were driving. We had a pretty view of a well contested race for about two miles." It was July 4th, Independence Day. The pioneers did not celebrate this day. Hosea Stout wrote in his journal: "Today is our nation's anniversary or birthday of her liberty while we are fleeing exiles from her tyranny & oppression."
On Wednesday the traveling was difficult, as wagons were pulled through very heavy sand up and down sandy bluffs. Hiram Gates had more problems with his wagon when it was tipped over. Oliver Huntington later wrote: "He [Hiram Gates] blamed his women severely for it, and what mortified him worse than all, it disclosed a bottle of wine; before unknown. The wagon turned square bottom side up, no one in it. That night he quarreled with his wife and whipped her. The guard about 11 o'clock saw it and when the hour came to cry, he loudly cried '11 o'clock, all is well and Gates is quarreling with his wife like hell.'"
On Thursday the camp passed Cedar Bluffs. One of the camps was careless and started a prairie fire. Timothy Foote and James Ivie were brought before the leaders for failing to do their duty while on guard detail. They were both admonished and discharged.
On Saturday, the pioneer reached "Lone Tree" and sadly discovered that "some mean sacrilegious fellow" had cut down the body of the Indian child which had hung from the tree during the previous year. The skins and trinkets had been stolen. William Major and Tom Johnson carefully pieces and again fastened the little body to the tree.
When the pioneers reached the point across from Ash Hollow, some of the brethren crossed over and met five brethren heading back from the valley with their families. These families had become discouraged in the valley, and reported deaths of Saints who had eaten poison roots. [This company included William Sears, John Fields, David Stidham, Loved Meeks, and Benjamin McBride.] The company had included William Weeks, the architect of the Nauvoo Temple. Brother Weeks, who had a team and wagon belonging to Brigham Young, did not wish to see President Young and left Ash Hollow two days earlier. Brigham Young gave a message to John Fields for William Weeks. President Young prophesied that Brother Weeks would not have peace of mind until he came back to the valley and made restitution for his sins. He said that the Saints would build a temple without Brother Weeks' help.
The pioneers ended out the week at Ash Hollow, 380 miles from Winter Quarters and 650 miles from the Salt Lake Valley.
On Monday, Willard Richards led the last company out of Winter Quarters, leaving the once thriving city almost empty. They gathered at the Elkhorn River on Thursday and joined Amasa M. Lyman's company of 108 wagons. These two companies consisted of a total of 526 people, 50 horses, 20 mules, 515 oxen, 426 cows, 369 sheep, 63 pigs, 5 cats, 44 dogs, 170 chickens, 4 turkeys, 7 ducks, 5 doves, and 3 goats.
Wilford Woodruff left Garden Grove to continue his journey to his mission. On July 4th, he met my 3rd-Great Grandfather, David Crockett camped about 115 miles east of Garden Grove.
On Wednesday, Wilford Woodruff experienced this often quoted experience: "During the evening a hard thunder storm was approaching us. My mules were tied to a large oak tree on the opposite side of the street. I felt impressed to move my mules away to another place. I did so. I also removed my children out of the carriage & made them a bed in the house. I also moved my carriage one rod down to the house in which Mrs. Woodruff, myself, & one child slept. We had just retired to bed when the storm reached us with great fury. In a moment the large oak tree came thundering to the ground with a mighty crash. Had I not moved my mules, it probably would have killed them. Had I not moved my carriage, it would have crushed it to atoms and killed us dead for the body of the tree fell where my carriage stood & just missed Brother Kingley's waggon. I considered it an interposition of providence to save our lives."
On Friday Elder Woodruff reached the west bank of the Mississippi River, and viewed again Nauvoo and the temple. He stayed in Keokuck.
On Monday, the main company of returning Mormon Battalion veterans started their journey over the mountains. The company consisted of about 45 men and Sister Melissa Coray. On July 4th, the recognized Independence Day by firing two rounds from a cannon. Addison Pratt wrote: "With these [cannons] we saluted the day, which made the mountains ring.]
On Thursday they reached a meadow on the North fork of the Consumnes River. They name the place Sly Park. They were concerned because they had not yet heard from the three advance scouts and decided to wait at Sly Park while ten men when to investigate and scout for a pass over the mountains. [The three scouts had been killed by Indians during the previous week.]
Our Pioneer Heritage, Vol. 17, p.111 Bagley, 1848 Trail Journal of Thomas Bullock Harwell, Manuscript History of Brigham Young, 108 Brooks, On the Mormon Frontier, 1:317 Wilford Woodruff's Journal, 3:355-56 Ricketts, The Mormon Battalion, 205-07 Bagley, A Road From El Dorado, 17-18. Ellsworth, The Journals of Addison Pratt, 342
On Wednesday, Patty Session recorded in her journal that she helped get a bean out of young Joseph Schofield's nose. On Thursday she wrote: "I have been sick all night. Eliza R. Snow came here, stayed a day and night with me. I am very sick all day. The Elders came and administered to me. The pain left me, but I am very weak."
On Sunday, the pioneer company rested. Many of the brethren crossed over the Platte River to visit Ash Hollow, which was on the Oregon Trail. Others in the camp washed their clothes and bodies. W.W. Phelps composed a new song, "The Saints upon the Prairie" which was given to the choir. Brigham Young and Isaac Morley rode back seventeen miles to visit Heber C. Kimball's camp. This company was hoping to catch up with the main body within a week.
The pioneers moved out of their camp on Monday, at 8 a.m. Some wagons were caught in quicksand, but were freed by doubling the teams. As they traveled, they saw about thirty Indian traders on horseback, across the river on the Oregon Trail, heading east. On Tuesday William Major's horse broke loose from his wagon and ran away at a full gallop, startling teams from several other wagons, who also broke into a gallop. It was a scary moment, but no damage was done. Later, other horses were startled by dogs and a broken wagon tongue. Thomas Bullock referred to this day as "the first day of the races."
After establishing camp on Tuesday evening, the pioneers were delighted to meet John Y. Green and Joseph Young who arrived from the Salt Lake Valley with news and letters from the Saints. They were leading a company of 18 wagons and teams to assist the pioneers. They had met Lorenzo Snow's company several miles ahead.
On Wednesday, the pioneer company came within sight of Chimney Rock for the first time and passed by Ancient Bluff Ruins. They were visited by Indians who crossed over the river to trade Buffalo robes and moccasins for corn meal. Brigham Young decided to rest the camp on Thursday, to repair the wagons from the valley, to write letters, and to help Heber C. Kimball's camp catch up. Plans were made to send a few of the brethren from the valley, to Council Bluffs with letters. Brigham Young wrote to Orson Hyde in England who would be returning soon. The letter included: "I wish you would exert yourself to gather up the tithing and bring it with you, in order to prepare for glass, nails, paints and such other articles as will be needed to bring from the States to assist in building up the temple of the Lord in the valley of the Great Salt Lake."
On Thursday, Dr. Sprague reported that some sickness was spreading in the camp. There were some cases of fever and cases of itching. The cause was blamed on poor drinking water.
On Friday, Daniel S. Thomas departed with others to take 52 letters back to Council Bluffs. The pioneer company continued on and ended the week camped a few miles from Chimney Rock, about 450 miles from Winter Quarters and 580 miles from the Salt Lake Valley.
On Sunday, Wilford Woodruff, heading east for a mission, crossed over the Mississippi River in a steam boat and walked into Nauvoo for the first time since he left there on May 22, 1846. He visited with Almon W. Babbitt, who had been one of the Nauvoo Trustees, and then went to see the temple. Elder Woodruff wrote: "I visited the Temple & went over it from the bottom to the top where I once more had a full view of the once beautiful, but now desolate, city of Nauvoo. The temple was in a much better state of preservation than I expected to find it." A rumor had spread in the city that Elder Orson Hyde would be speaking in the Temple on that day. This caused much excitement and threats. Many people gathered, but nothing happened because Elder Hyde had no plans to speak. Later that day, Elder Woodruff taught and baptized a man from Michigan. He confirmed him, ordained him and elder, and gave him a license to go on a mission.
Elder Woodruff visited with people in Nauvoo for a couple days and then took his family and boarded a steamer bound for St. Louis. He wrote: "We went on deck but we did not sleep any at all for it seemed as though the fleas, bedbugs & musketoes would have destroyed us. They bit ourselves & children in a dreadful manner." They arrived in St. Louis on Wednesday night. He called upon Brother Nathaniel H. Felt, who found them a room to stay in. Conditions were poor. "The heat was so excessive through the day & no circulation of air where we were, that it seemed as though we should die."
The returning Mormon Battalion company waited at Sly Park while scouts went on ahead to find a better pass over the mountains and to find out what happened to the three missing men. The scouts returned on Thursday, reported that they could not find an easier route and also that they could not find the three missing men. On Friday the camp was organized to start the journey over the mountains. The company consisted at that time of 17 wagons, 45 men, one woman, and many pack animals, cows, horses, and other animals. The company moved out on Saturday.
Smart, Mormon Midwife, 116 Harwell, Manuscript History of Brigham Young, 110 Bagley, 1848 Trail Journal of Thomas Bullock Brooks, On the Mormon Frontier, 1:318 Bagley, A Road From El Dorado, 18-19. Bagley, The 1848 Trail Journal of Samuel Hollister Rogers Wilford Woodruff's Journal, 3:356-58
The pioneers in the fort did not always get along. A case was brought before the High Council involving Thomas Grover and William Deuell. Brother Grover was charged with beating Brother Deuell unlawfully and threatening his life. The Council delayed their decision until Brother Deuell recovered from his bruises.
On Sunday, the huge 1848 pioneer company rested a few miles from Chimney Rock. Letters were prepared to be sent on to the Salt Lake Valley by messengers. At 4 p.m. a meeting was held on the open prairie. It was proposed to divide the two huge pioneer companies led by Brigham Young and Heber C. Kimball, into eight smaller companies. John Y. Greene, Benjamin Rolfe, and Cyrenus Taylor were assigned to take to mail to the valley. The meeting was dismissed after the choir sang, "Come let us anew."
On Monday, the camp rolled out in the morning. A package of 265 letters for the valley were tied up in a yellow handkerchiefs and delivered to President Young. During the week, the company passed by Scotts Bluffs and into present-day Wyoming. Their travels took them over plains scattered with prickly pear cactus. They were able to view majestic Laramie Peak for the first time on Wednesday as they reached the top of a bluff.
On Thursday, Orrin Porter Rockwell and Quinson Scovil arrived from the Salt Lake Valley with more mail and news. The messengers brought with them two horses and nine mules. They had made the journey from the valley in one month. They reported that about 8,000 bushels of wheat would be harvested in the valley, along with many bushels of corn. A letter from the High Council included: "The brethren have been busy for sometime watering their wheat, and as far as it is done, the wheat looks well, and the heads are long and large. The crickets are still quite numerous and busy eating, but between the gulls, our efforts and growth of our crops we shall raise much grain in spite of them. . . . We expect that more tams will start soon to meet you and we wish you would let us know as soon as you can how many more teams you wish."
On Friday, the pioneers reached point where they would have to cross over the North Platte River, and start traveling on the Oregon Trail. This was only a couple miles from Fort Laramie. The river was low enough to cross over the wagons by doubling the teams. The wagons were able to all cross over the river by the afternoon. They pressed on and camped near Fort Laramie.
The pioneers did not spend much time at the Fort. On Saturday they left a letter at the fort for Willard Richards and Amasa Lyman, who were traveling several hundred miles behind with their companies. The pioneers ended out the week several miles west of Fort Laramie. They were about 530 miles from Winter Quarters and about 500 miles away from the valley. It had taken this huge pioneer company 48 travel-days to reach this point, which remarkably was the same number of days it took the much smaller 1847 pioneer company.
Thomas Bullock described their camp: "Plenty of Timber & Choke Cherries, the Mountain scenery interspersed with Cedar & Pine Trees looks pretty to me."
Elders Orson Hyde and Wilford Woodruff had a happy reunion with many Saints in St. Louis. A meeting was held on Sunday where Elder Hyde spoke in the morning on the resurrection and Elder Woodruff spoke in the afternoon. On Monday, Elder Woodruff boarded a boat with his family and steamed toward Chicago. On Tuesday, little eight-month-old Shuah Woodruff became very sick. They stayed at the home of Brother Luther Scammans at Lost Grove, Illinois. Elder Woodruff wrote on Friday, "We spent the day taking care of Shuah who suffered much through the day. It appeared evident she would soon be taken from us as she could not live long." On Saturday, little Shuah died. Elder Woodruff wrote: "Her suffering are ended and she has gone to rest with her brother and sister kindred spirits." The Woodruffs had previously lost three other children.
The company of former Mormon Battalion soldiers continued their journey up the mountains, on their way to the Salt Lake Valley.
On Wednesday some of the company arrived at a site where it was apparent that a struggle had recently taken place. Returning missionary, Addison Pratt recorded: "We found a number of Indian arrows. Some were broken and bloody and others were entire. Near this was a new mound, after the order of Indian burials. This, we commenced to open, and in the bottom of it we found, to the utter astonishment and dismay of all present, the bodies of our three friends [who had been missing for several weeks] entirely divested of every article of clothing, and bearing marks of horrid violence." The three brethren were Daniel Browett, Ezra H. Allen, and Henderson Cox. They had been killed on June 21, 1848. This site became known as Tragedy Spring.
Azariah Smith recorded: "We traveled about eight miles when we came to the place where the brethren were supposed to have been killed and thrown into that hole, covered with dirt by the Indians. After examining till we were sure that they were all there, we again covered them up, and searched to see what we could discover, and found Brother Allen's purse with some upwards of a hundred dollars in it. . . . From the appearance of things, Brother Allen got his six shooter, and got behind a big rock to protect himself. But there being so many Indians, they rushed upon him and mashed him in pieces with rocks, where the purse was found, which was covered with blood. There were a great many arrows also picked up which were covered with blood."
The company was reorganized with Jonathan H. Holmes appointed as the leaders. Their past leader, Daniel Browett was one of the dead scouts. Jonathan Holmes recorded: "We fixed the grave as well as we could. It was a solem time when it was ascertained that these men had been murdered & in so shocking a manner. It was a time of solemenity and mourning to think that the man that was to be our leader to Salt Lake was now lying dead. He was like a father to me & we mourn his loss."
The next day the bodies were reburied into a deeper grave which was filled up with stone. A tree close by was engraved with: "Sacred Memory of Daniel Browett, Ezrah H. Allen, and Henderson Cox. Who was supposed to have been murdered and buried, by the Indians on the night of the 27th of June 1848."
[In 1929, the tree fell, breaking off above the inscription. The stump was cut and moved to Marshall Gold Discovery Historical State Park museum where it was restored in 1988. Stones put on the grave by the brethren, are still there. A bronze marker was placed at the grave in 1967.
LDS-Gems subscriber, Gary Brown
"The surviving battalion members sent the gold to Ezra's widow, Sarah Fiske Allen, who was back in Iowa, anxiously anticipating being reunited with her husband and continuing on to the west. Of course, the news of Ezra's death was a devastating blow to her, but her journal records how she was determined to trust in God and rise above her grief. She remained in Iowa for another three years, but then traded the gold for the provisions she needed to make the westward journey. There was even enough gold left over that she had a wedding band (or possibly two, according to family legend) made from it. Sarah and her two surviving children, Cynthia Amorette and Alexander Alma, arrived in the Salt Lake Valley in the fall of 1852."
Our Pioneer Heritage, Vol. 17, p.112 Bagley, 1848 Trail Journal of Thomas Bullock Harwell, Manuscript History of Brigham Young, 111 Brooks, On the Mormon Frontier, 1:319 Wilford Woodruff's Journal, 3:358-59 Email from Gary Brown on July 6, 1998 Ricketts, The Mormon Battalion, 207-11 Bigler, The Gold Discovery Journal of Azariah Smith, 127-30 Ellsworth, The Journals of Addison Pratt, 344-45 Bagley, Jonathan Holmes 1848 Mormon-Carson Emigrant Trail Journal
There apparently was no big celebration to recognize the first anniversary of the arrival of the pioneers to the valley. The Saints worked hard as usual. Patty Sessions wrote on Monday, July 24: "Worked so hard I could not sleep."
** See a list of the 1848 pioneers at
Thomas Bullock, one of the original 1847 pioneers did remember the pioneer day anniversary. He was now traveling again to the valley after returning to Winter Quarters during the previous fall. On July 23, he wrote in his journal: "Anniversary of entering the Valley of the Great Salt Lake." [Actually, the majority of the first pioneer company, including Thomas Bullock, entered the valley on July 22, 1847. Brigham Young, who was ill, arrived two days later, on July 24th.]
On Sunday, the 1848 pioneer camp rested several miles west of Fort Laramie. Charles Kennedy tried his hand at fishing with a net and brought in about 150 fish.
Because the trail was narrower, the pioneer companies traveled in smaller groups. This caused them to be more spread out across the miles of the Oregon Trail. On Wednesday they experienced a sharp frost during the night. Traveling became more difficult as they had to climb and descend many hills. Some wagons broke and some oxen gave out. At times they would have a beautiful view of Laramie Peak enveloped in clouds.
On Thursday they arrived at "Heber's Spring." Thomas Bullock wrote: "This place proves to be a garden for many of the brethren and [the] Sisters are busily employed gathering the Gooseberries & Currants which are in great quantities at this place." Four men, former Mormon Battalion soldiers, arrived in camp from the Salt Lake Valley. They were William Hawk, Nathan Hawk, Sanford Jacobs, and Richard Slater. The brethren had left the Salt Lake Valley on July 9. They brought copies of Samuel Brannan's "California Star" newspaper. The messengers mentioned that the Saints who sailed to California with Samuel Brannan on the ship "Brooklyn" were doing well, living near San Francisco.
On Friday night, a tremendous thunder storm poured rain and hail on the pioneers. Thomas Bullock wrote: "It appeared to cut through the Wagon Covers, wetting beds & every thing uppermost. On rising in the morning found [we] some of the Wagons in a lake of water, but my Wagons were on "the Islands of the Seas." [We] saw some of the hail stones several hours after the Storm."
On Saturday one of Curtis Bolton's oxen fell off a bluff and broke its back. Chandler Holbrook's cow died of exhaustion. The weary pioneer camp ended the week near the La Bonte River, about 590 from Winter Quarters and 450 miles from the Salt Lake Valley.
Wilford Woodruff had paused during his journey to Chicago because of the sickness and death of his baby Shuah Woodruff. The Woodruff family stayed at the home of Brother Luther Scammon. On Sunday, Elder Woodruff attended to the burial. He buried his child in a black walnut coffin, in the Scammon's garden. Sister Woodruff was having a very hard time, and they decided to stay the week at the Scammon's home before resuming their journey. On Thursday he helped Brother Scammon make 3,600 bundles of wheat. Elder Woodruff over-extended himself. He recorded: "At night I was sore from the crown of my head to the souls of my feet. I went to bed. My nerves were so unstring I could not sleep at all."
The returning group of Mormon Battalion Soldiers, now led by Jonathan H. Holmes, continued their journey over the mountains toward the Salt Lake Valley. They were still trying to recover from the past week's shock of finding the bodies of three of their brethren, who had been killed by Indians. The company had great difficulties with wagons breaking from tipping over or from running into stumps and other obstacles.
James S. Brown wrote: "The wind blew as if it were the middle of November. As we crossed over [West Pass, 9,600 feet] we came to a large snowdrift; on the north side of the mountain our wagons rolled over the snow as if on marble pavement, but when we came to where the sun shone in the latter part of the day, our wagons went down to the hub, and four were capsized and some of them badly broken."
They camped near frozen lakes and melted snow for water. On Saturday they
reached what would later be called Kit Carson Pass, at 8,600 feet. They had difficulty
going down the other side and had to hold the wagons to keep them from tipping
Long-time LDS-Gems subscriber, Will Bagley published one of the journals
written by a man in this company, Ephraim Green. If you would like to
purchase a paper-back copy of this fascinating 58 page book, "A Road From
El Dorado: The 1848 Trail Journal of Ephraim Green," send $8.00 to: Will
Bagley, The Prairie Dog Press, 1451 Kensington Ave, Salt Lake City, UT
84105. Email: email@example.com
Bagley, 1848 Trail Journal of Thomas Bullock Smart, Mormon Midwife, 116 Brooks, On the Mormon Frontier, 1:320 Wilford Woodruff's Journal, 3:359-60 Ricketts, The Mormon Battalion, 211-12 Bagley, A Road From El Dorado, 22,23
On Monday Eliza R. Snow and Elvira Holmes left with Howard W. Sperry and others for a three-week outing in the mountains. On Saturday, while on the Weber River, they met messengers from the 1848 pioneer camp. They rejoiced to receive word that hundreds of Saints were nearing the Valley. The group from the Valley crossed over the river and stopped to pick currants. When they were within four miles of Cave Rock, they visited an Indian camp and traded for some dried meat.
The enormous 1848 pioneer company were greeted on Sunday morning with a sharp frost. Ice was gathered off of the oxen yokes. One ox was found dead and frozen. The pioneers decided to travel on this Sabbath in order to find better grass for the animals. Thomas Bullock wrote: "[We] have a beautiful view of the Country, in our front the Red Valley looked really handsome. Brigham's Camps winding thro' it shews the goodness of the Lord in enabling so many to slip between the Mountains to their hiding place."
On Monday the camp rested. There was concern when Gad Yale was missing. He had went out to feed his cow but did not return by noon. Many brethren searched the hills for hours and still Brother Yale was not found. He finally returned to camp at sundown. He had gone out hunting. Other brethren in the camp had gone hiking during the day. Hosea Stout was with a group that climbed a high peak and saw a grizzly bear. They shot and wounded him, but the bear escaped.
Thomas Bullock described a terrible storm on Wednesday: "A tremendous shower was seen coming towards us, when we got in a gulley, [and] huddled up to prepare for it, when it came rushing down upon us, as if it were going to sweep our Wagon tops away. The thunder kept up one unceasing roll, & was awful - I was very thankful when all was over. We again hitched up & started, but the ground being so very slippery, we could not go in the road, but went over the Sage bushes for better convenience, rough work for wagons."
On Thursday the pioneers were scattered over several miles near Deer Creek. Several men went to see the coal mine which had been discovered by the pioneers during the previous year's historic journey. On Friday Thomas Bullock left a letter in a box for Willard Richards and Amasa Lyman's companies. The pioneer camp ended the week camped near the site of the "Mormon Ferry" crossing of the Platte River, near present-day Casper, Wyoming. They still had about 380 miles to travel before they would reach the valley. At the ferry crossing, they found a few brethren from the Valley who had been ferrying across Oregon Emigrants.
Willard Richards and Amasa Lyman were traveling with their large companies about three hundred miles behind. On Sunday at Skunk Creek, they divided their companies into smaller groups to make traveling more convenient.
"Anti-Mormons" met together in two meetings and passed a resolution that stated that Mormon influences were again gaining ground in the city. They vowed to use means to prevent the growth of such "licentious and disorganizing tenets."
On Monday Wilford Woodruff continued his journey toward Chicago. He arrived there on Wednesday and his company, including his family, boarded a steamer bound for Buffalo, New York. On Saturday, the steamer stopped shortly in Milwaukee and continued across the lake toward Detroit. A bad storm blew in causing the water to be the roughest that the ship's captain had ever seen.
The company of returning Mormon Battalion soldiers continued their journey east, toward the valley. They descended down from Kit Carson Pass through Hope Valley. Crews worked hard to construct a road through Carson Canyon. Zadock Judd recorded: "We had no hammers nor drill with which we could do anything with the stones. It seemed almost an impossibility to go father. Finally someone suggested that we build a fire on the rocks, and as there was plenty of dry logs and brush near, there was soon a good fire blazing on each rock that lay in our way. When the fire had died down and cooled off a little, we found that as far as the heat had penetrated the rocks were all broken in small pieces, which were soon removed with pick and shovel and another fire built with the same result. After building three or four fires, we found that the rocks were not much in our way and we soon had a good wagon road right over them."
Returning missionary, Addison Pratt wrote: "After the road was prepared, it took us one day to transport our stuff to the lower end of the canyon. We had now got over the worst of the road and we now began to lose sight of those snow peaks that had been such a dread to me and my health and spirits were fast on the mend, and I could smile or even laugh, as in other days." By the end of the week, the company was camped in a beautiful valley near Pass Creek.
Beecher, The Personal Writings of Eliza Roxcy Snow, 225 Harwell, Manuscript History of Brigham Young, 112-13 Bagley, 1848 Trail Journal of Thomas Bullock Brooks, On the Mormon Frontier, 1:320-21 Ricketts, The Mormon Battalion, 213 Ellsworth, The Journals of Addison Pratt, 348 Wilford Woodruff's Journal, 3:360-61