On Sunday, August 1, the Saints in the valley assembled for a meeting in the newly constructed bowery on the northeast portion of the Temple Block. The Saints were warned to be careful in their dealings with the Indian and to guard their cattle. Heber C. Kimball prophesied that within five years, the Saints would be better off than they ever were at Nauvoo. They discussed building a stockade for protection. Plans were put in place to build what became known as the “Old Fort” on today's Pioneer Park.
On Monday, the three camps moved their wagons a little to the east of the upper campground and formed them into a corral between the two branches of City Creek. A portion of City Creek was diverted so it would run inside the corral of wagons. Orson Pratt and Henry G. Sherwood began to survey Salt Lake City. It was decided during the week to reduce the temple site from forty acres, to ten. Heber C. Kimball's teams brought loads of logs from the canyon to start construction on the fort.
Ezra T. Benson, Porter Rockwell, and three battalion soldiers were sent back to meet the second pioneer company. They left on Monday, at noon. They took with them a letter announcing the arrival to their new home:
We have arrived in the most beautiful valley of the Great Salt Lake; that every soul who left Winter Quarters with us is alive, and almost every one enjoying good health. That portion of the Battalion that was at Pueblo are here with us, together with the Mississippi company that accompanied them, and they are generally well. We number about four hundred souls, and we know of no one but what is pleased with our situation. We have commenced the survey of a city this morning. . . . . We wish to learn by express from you the situation of your camp as speedily as possible, that we may be prepared to counsel and act in the whole matter. We want you to send us the name of every individual in your camp. . . . Let all the brethren and sisters cheer up their hearts and know assuredly that God has heard and answered their prayers and ours, and led us to a goodly land, and our souls are satisfied therewith.
Thomas Tanner and Burr Frost set up their Blacksmith Shop. Utah Valley was explored during the week. Jesse C. Little, Samuel Brannan, and Wesley Willis returned on August 5, and reported that the valley was a fine country with good soil.
Erastus Snow summed up much of the work during the week: “This week I was detailed to take charge of herding all our stock, and seven men were selected for herdsmen; others were set to watering fields and sowing turnips, etc. Others were to get out timber for log houses, and a strong company was organized to make adobes.” John Brown added: “This week was spent in sowing turnips and watering the crops which had come up, and looked well, considering it being mid‑summer. Our experiment had already proven the land fertile.”
On Friday, re‑baptisms were performed to renew their covenants in their new valley home. Brigham Young first baptized the Twelve and then laid hands on in confirmation. Heber C. Kimball baptized President Young. This practice of re‑baptism was performed for many years as the Saints would enter the valley for the first time.
A “terrible whirl‑wind” struck that camp at noon and did considerable damage. Some of the fowl were whirled in the air, tents and wagon covers were torn, and contents were shook violently.
On Saturday afternoon, Twelve went to the Temple Block and selected their “inheritances.” Brigham Young chose a block east of the Temple site, Heber C. Kimball took a block north, Orson Pratt a block south, and Wilford Woodruff a block cornering on the Temple grounds. George A. Smith chose one on the west, and Amasa M. Lyman one near Wilford Woodruff's.
In the evening, Heber C. Kimball re‑baptized fifty‑six people, and they were confirmed by Brigham Young and other members of the Twelve.
William Empey wrote: “We feel very lonesome to day in a barren wilderness several hundred miles from any inhabitants but the wild men of the forest and all kinds of wild animals roaring at night time.”
The Second Pioneer Company met General Kearny's detachment and had a happy reunion with the fourteen Mormon Battalion soldiers who were part of the detachment. Jesse W. Crosby wrote: “Some men passed us from California on their way to the States ‑‑ about fifty in number. General Kearney and his attendants horse back, many pack horses.” On the next day, the pioneers started to arrive at Fort Laramie. They rested several days and repaired wagons.
During the week, Esther Shaffer Ewing, wife of Samuel Ewing, died. She was the mother of nine children. She was buried near the trail. Eliza R. Snow recorded: “The body was wrap'd in a quilt & consign'd to its narrow home without a coffin. It truly seem'd a lonely grave.”
Jonathan Pugmire and Brother Whiting, of the Mormon Battalion sick detachments, arrived back at Winter Quarters. Brother Pugmire had traveled all the way back from the Mormon Ferry in just about three weeks. Many gathered at a meeting to hear a journal read, written by Thomas Bullock, telling of the pioneer company travels from Winter Quarters to the Sweet Water.
The High Council met with the leaders of the Garden Grove settlement. They discovered that the reports from Garden Grove had been false and evil. The brethren there had been leading the settlement in righteousness. The Branch at Garden Grove was reinstated to full fellowship. The leaders were sent back to perform rebaptisms.
Hosea Stout's only remaining child, Louisa, died. He wrote that it “seemed to complete the dark curtain which has been drawn over me since I left Nauvoo. My family then consisted of 8 members & not but two. Five of whom has died & now I am left childless but I shall not dwell on this painful subject.”
Orson F. Whitney, History of Utah, Vol. 1, p.346‑49; Bagley, ed., The Pioneer Camp of the Saints, 246‑52; Erastus Snow Diary, Improvement Era, 15:551; Autobiography of John Brown, 81; Journal of William Empey, Annals of Wyoming, 21:145; Isaac C. Haight Journal, typescript, 44; Jesse W. Crosby Journal, typescript, 39; Beecher, The Personal Writings of Eliza Roxcy Snow, 189; Brooks, On the Mormon Frontier, 1:268; Ward, Winter Quarters, 176
On Sunday morning, 289 people were re‑baptized in City Creek and confirmed, to renew their covenants with the Lord. Later a public meeting was held in the newly constructed bowery where they were addressed by Heber C. Kimball and Wilford Woodruff. In the afternoon a sacrament meeting was held. Plans were discussed regarding construction of the fort. Brigham Young gave some words of counsel. Erastus Snow wrote: “We had a most glorious discourse from the president on the priesthood, and sealing powers and blessings thereof.”
On Monday, it was decided to name the new city, “Salt Lake City, Great Basin, North America.” It was also decided to build a Council House on the block south of the Temple block.
Also, on Monday Samuel Brannan, Captain James Brown, and other members of the Mormon battalion left the Salt Lake Valley. They were heading to California to draw the battalion pay from the Government. They also took with them 252 letters for the battalion members in California. Captain Brown took with him the muster roll for his Pueblo detachment. They headed north toward Fort Hall, on the Snake River, near present‑day Pocatello, Idaho. As they journeyed up the eastern shore of the Great Salt Lake and reached the Weber River, they met Miles Goodyear who had built a log fort near the river. John Brown described that the fort “consisted of some log buildings and corrals stockaded in with pickets. This man had a herd of cattle, horses and goats. He had a small garden of vegetables, also a few stalks of corn, and although it had been neglected, it looked well.”
Jesse C. Little, John Brown, and others also accompanied this group north, but separated from them to go explore Cache Valley. They would return to the Salt Lake Valley later in the week and report that Cache Valley was “a fine place for wintering cattle,” and was also a good place for farming. The valley had the most timber of any place yet explored.
Meanwhile, work progressed on the fort three‑quarters of a mile southwest of the City Creek camp. The foundations of the first log houses were laid on Tuesday. These houses were being constructed on the east line of the stockade.
Plowing and planting was halted as most of the pioneers were busy chopping, hauling logs, and working on the fort and houses. Others worked hard making adobe bricks for the fort walls. Eighty‑three acres had been planted. Stephen Goodard and others discovered nice beds of salt near the lake. They prepared 125 bushels of white salt and boiled down four barrels of salt water, making one barrel of find white table salt.
During the week, the first births and first death occurred among the Saints in their new valley home. On Monday, August 9, a daughter, Young Elizabeth Steele, was born to battalion members John and Catharine Campbell Steele.
Sadly, on Wednesday, three‑year‑old Milton Howard Therlkill, wandered away from camp, fell into City Creek, and drowned. He was the son of Mississippi Saints George and Matilda Jane Therlkill. Thomas Bullock recorded: “He fell into the river on the South East of the Camp & before assistance could be rendered he was quite dead. Means were used to revive him, if possible, but all was of no avail. This is the first death in this Valley.” As the parent mourned their loss, on Saturday, a daughter, Harriet Ann Therlkill was born into their family.
The second, “Big Company” of pioneers continued their journey through the Black Hills in Wyoming. Eliza R. Snow recorded: “The country here is rugged enough ‑‑ diversified with scrubby pine, hemlock, cottonwood &c very thinly scatter'd; with bluffs presenting the appearance of well fortified castles the inhabitant of which exclude themselves from our view, altho' 2 grizly bears have been seen.”
On Friday evening young people met for a dance. However, Simon Baker's sons and others “intruded with much insolence” and had to be tried before a bishop's court on Saturday.
Orson F. Whitney, History of Utah, Vol. 1, p.349‑52; Bagley, ed., Pioneer Camp of the Saints, 253‑57; Beecher, The Personal Writings of Eliza Roxcy Snow, 190‑91; Autobiography of John Brown, 81; Erastus Snow Diary, Improvement Era, 15:551
On Sunday, the pioneer Saints met at 10 a.m. to listen to President Brigham Young preach. He spoke about that priesthood, which had been restored to the prophet, Joseph Smith. “Some have had fears that we had not power to get revelations since the death of Joseph. But I want this subject from this time forth to be forever set at rest.” He testified that the apostles held the keys, power, and authority which had been held by Joseph Smith. He referred to the sad death of three‑year‑old Milton Howard Therlkill, who had been drowned in City Creek during the previous week. “It is true that all Children are saved. Their names are written in the Lamb's book of life.” He explained that such little children could be sealed to their parents through the ordinances of the temple. “As soon as we get up some adobe houses for our families we shall go to work to build another temple.”
A Sacrament meeting was held in the afternoon. Orson Pratt addressed the congregation about the ordinances of the gospel. Later in the day, Brigham Young organized a company of seventy men who would head back with ox teams to Winter Quarters. Their leaders would be Shadrach Roundy and Tunis Rappleye. Those who were members of the Mormon Battalion were asked to leave their guns in the valley with Brigham Young. On this day, the first four chickens were hatched in “Great Salt Lake City.” The hen belonged to Stephen H. Goddard.
On Monday, the returning company started to gather at the mouth of Emigration Canyon. The company consisted of 24 pioneers, 46 battalion soldiers, 34 wagons, 92 yoke of oxen, 18 horses, and 14 mules. William Clayton fixed the roadometer which would also be used for the return trip.
At noon, Brigham Young and other members of the Twelve met at President Young's tent to name the streets around the Temple Block: East Temple Street, South Temple Street, West Temple Street, North Temple Street, and other streets such as First South Street, Second South Street, etc.
On Tuesday, the returning company started their journey to Winter Quarters. Before leaving, they were addressed by Heber C. Kimball. He exhorted them to dedicate themselves to the Lord and obey council. As the company departed, Heber C. Kimball, Thomas Bullock and others left the canyon by riding to the top of Donner Hill. They had a “splendid view of the valley.” By Thursday the returning company reached Echo Canyon, on Friday, they arrived at Cache Cave, and on Saturday, they crossed the Bear River in present‑day Wyoming.
Throughout the week, the pioneers in the valley were very busy building log houses and working on the fort. By Wednesday, Brigham Young and Heber C. Kimball had nine houses ready to receive roofs. The north adobe wall around the fort had received five feet high.
On Thursday, a group of men and horses were spotted approaching the camp. Great excitement was raised as it was thought that this party was the express led by Ezra T. Benson, who had been sent back to meet the second group of pioneers. But they were disappointed to learn that it was just a group of Indians from Fort Bridger with pack mules. Their party passed the camp and headed toward the Great Salt Lake.
On Friday, many of the brethren who intended to soon return to Winter Quarters soon, enjoyed a bath at the Great Salt Lake. George A. Smith was seriously injured when a heavy log fell from a wagon and hit him on the head. Wilford Woodruff recorded: “This evening while unloading the last load of logs, one stick fell on Br G A Smith's head & knocked him down & cut a hole in his head.” On the following day, Elder Smith was able to walk but could not do any work.
On Saturday, Brigham Young and Heber C. Kimball moved into their new log homes. Albert Carrington, John Brown, William Rust, and George Wilson climbed Twin Peaks. On the way up, they saw sixteen mountain sheep. After an eight-hour hike, they reached the top and found plenty of snow there. At 5 p.m., their thermometer registered 55 degrees. On this same day, it was 101 degrees at noon in the valley. John Brown recorded:
At five‑thirty we began the descent. Came down the west side through a beautiful grove of timber and by a small creek. We had not gone far until it was dark. We were without bedding or coats or any kind of arms, expecting to have got back to camp by the middle of the afternoon, and, being a very warm day, we went as light as possible, but when night came on it was quite cool on the mountain. Being very dark, we got separated in climbing over the rocks. We had to feel our way lest we fall over a precipice.
At 10 p.m., they halted and tried to sleep on the steep slope covered with pebbles. In the morning, very tired and hungry, they returned safely to the camp.
Great excitement arose in the “Big Company” of pioneers when Ezra T. Benson, Orrin Porter Rockwell, and others rode into camp. They were the express sent back from the Salt Lake Valley to announce the arrival of the first pioneer company to the new valley home of the Saints. This express had traveled about 450 miles in just two weeks to reach the second company of pioneers. On Tuesday, Eliza R. Snow heard the letter read that was sent back with the express. “The letter brought the most cheering [news] . . . stating that they were in the beautiful valley of the great Salt Lake.” Joseph Kingsbury heard Ezra T. Benson preach that evening. He recorded: “He preached to us, telling about the beautiful land that the Lord has given to the Saints & he said that he felt like a little child that he could go by himself & weep for joy.”
On Thursday, an accident occurred, involving five‑year‑old Carlos Lyon Sessions as they were fording the river near the site of the Mormon Ferry. His grandmother, Patty Sessions recorded: “Perrigrine had his waggon turned over with Carlos in it into the water. Got his things wet, Carlos not hurt although he was under water all but his face and sacks of grain and trunks a top him. He cut the cover and got him out and all the rest of the things loaded up again.”
Wilford Woodruff's Journal, 3:256‑261; Bagley, ed., The Pioneer Camp of the Saints, 257‑262; Harwell, ed., Manuscript History of Brigham Young, 67‑8; William Clayton's Journal, 346‑51; Autobiography of John Brown, 82‑3; Smart, ed., Mormon Midwife, 95‑6; Cook, Joseph C. Kingsbury, 123
A conference of the Church was held on Sunday at 1 p.m., on the temple block, in the bowery. The Saints opened the meeting by singing, “The Spirit of God like a fire is burning.” Place names were approved, starting with the city name: Great Salt Lake City. The streams running into the valley were named: City Creek, Red Butte Creek, Big Canyon Creek, Little Canyon Creek, and Mill Creek. The river from Utah Lake was named Western Jordan River. It was voted that a stake of Zion would be organized in the city with a president and High Council. These appointments would be made later. Tarton Lewis was appointed the overseer of the city stockade. The conference was adjourned. It was announced that the next conference of the Church to be held in the city would be on October 6, 1848.
Later in the day, the Twelve met in Heber C. Kimball's log home for prayer. They dedicated the land and themselves to the Lord. They prayed for protection during their planned return trip to Winter Quarters.
On Monday, battalion members Thomas Williams, Ebenezer Hanks, and Ed Dalton returned from Fort Hall with flour and beef cattle.
The brethren worked hard all week completing their houses. Wilford Woodruff wrote: “We finished laying up the timber of our rooms & I put the roof on one room & put on one coat of mud & made one door & hung it.” About 30 houses had been constructed. They were about 14 by 16 feet and 8 feet high. On Tuesday night the pioneers were kept awake by wolves which howled continually near the city.
On Wednesday, many of the pioneers and members of the battalion prepared to return to Winter Quarters for their families. Wilford Woodruff recorded: “We shall leave this valley in the morning to start back to Winter Quarters. We as a pioneer company have accomplished more this season then can be found on record concerning any set of men since the days of Adam. . . . In one month after our arrival laid out a city two miles square & built a fort & fortification of hewn timber drawn 7 miles from the mountains & of unburnt brick surrounding 10 acres of ground 40 rods of which was covered with block houses, besides planting about 100 acres of corn, potatoes, buckwheat, turnips, gardens &c.
Brigham Young left parting instructions for those remaining in the valley during the coming winter. These included:
It is necessary that the adobe yard (the stockade) should be secured so that Indians cannot get in. . . . Make your walls 4 feet high, so that they can keep the cattle out. Build your houses so that you will have plenty of fresh air in them, or some of you will get sick, after being used to sleeping in your wagons so long. . . . Raise all the grain you can, and with this you can purchase sheep, cows, teams, etc., of those who come here later on. We desire you to live in that stockade until we come back again, and raise grain next year.
On Thursday, the returning pioneers, under the direction of Brigham Young, including a large number of battalion soldiers, harnessed up their horses and bid farewell to their friends who remained behind. Brigham Young shouted, “Good‑bye all who tarry, I feel well!” Harriet Young, wife of Lorenzo Young wrote: “This day has been a lonesome one. Bro. Brigham and Heber with a number of Brethren started for Winter Quarters and we feel as if we were left alone.”
This returning group consisted of 108 men. As the left their new city, they noticed that the corn was about a foot high and the buckwheat was doing fine. Thomas Bullock wrote: “We go by the farm which looks in a very healthy condition and also the garden, but many of the seeds had not grown. Many large birds flying about.”
On Friday, while descending into East Canyon, Brigham Young prayed “that the time would soon come that every man, woman & child would have as much food to eat as they needed.” He also expressed his fear that some people would be wasteful in the valley, bringing down the displeasure of the Lord. By Saturday, the returning pioneers reached Echo Canyon.
On Monday, the returning group of seventy pioneers and battalion members led by Shadrach Roundy, Tunis Rappleye, and William Willis arrived at Fort Bridger. William Clayton wrote: “We found the grass pretty much eaten off and only stayed an hour and a half while some of the brethren traded some.” On Wednesday, they reached the Green River crossing, and on Thursday, at Big Sandy, they met the express led by Ezra T. Benson, heading west after their visit with the “Big Company” of pioneers. They reported that this huge second pioneer company consisted of 566 wagons and about 5,000 head of stock. On Saturday, the returning company reached Pacific Creek, just west of the Continental Divide.
The second, “Big Company” of more than 1,500 pioneers continued their journey westward. They traveled in groups of “fifty” families, spread over about fifty miles. Eliza R. Snow's group reached the “Mormon Ferry” crossing where they met Luke S. Johnson and other ferrymen who were getting ready to return to Winter Quarters. The river was considerably shallower than when the first pioneer company ferried across. Eliza R. Snow wrote: “The river is of a pebbly bottom ‑‑ the water not over the wagon hub.” Some of the wagons had difficulty while crossing the river. John Nebeker's little boy was tossed out of a wagon and run over, crushing his hip. He was administered to and lived. As the pioneers moved away from the North Platte, toward the Sweetwater, many of the oxen became sick from drinking alkaline water, causing some of them to die. Some of the pioneers reached Independence Rock. Patty Sessions wrote: “I went up on the rock, got a piece off of the top to carry along.” Jesse W. Crosby recorded: “We arrived at Independence Rock ‑‑ a place of moment with travelers, where hundreds of names are painted or engraved.”
During the week, Hosea Stout traveled north from Winter Quarters to visit the large farm known as Summer Quarters. He went there to organize a police guard, to protect the settlers from Indian problems. He wrote: “I arrived at the Farm about noon. It is a low hemmed in place and its looks is most desolate, sickly & gloomy. I found a majority of the place sick & in a most suffering condition. Some whole families not able to help each other and worse than all they were quarreling and contending with each other in a most disgraceful manner.” William Pace was appointed sergeant of the guard at Summer Quarters.
Wilford Woodruff's Journal, 3:262‑72; Bagley, ed., The Pioneer Camp of the Saints, 257‑262; Harwell, ed., Manuscript History of Brigham Young, 68; Smart, ed., Mormon Midwife, 96; Beecher, ed., The Personal Writings of Eliza Roxcy Snow, 195; Cook, Joseph C. Kingsbury, 125; William Clayton's Journal, 351‑53; Brooks, ed., On the Mormon Frontier, 270; Diary of Lorenzo Dow Young, Utah Historical Quarterly, 14:163; Jesse W. Crosby Journal, typescript, BYU, 42; Orson F. Whitney, History of Utah, Vol. 1, p.356
The returning pioneer company of 107 men traveled fifteen miles on Sunday morning, and soon met the express led by Ezra T. Benson. Wilford Woodruff wrote of the joy in meeting these returning messengers: “They were truly welcome messengers, for our anxiety had been very great to hear from our families & the camp, & to our joy we heard from them this day.” For the first time, they realized how huge the second company of pioneers was ‑‑ nine companies of nearly 600 wagons, more than 1,500 people. The pioneers received letters for the first time from their families. John Young and Nelson Higgins were sent back to Great Salt Lake City with a package of twenty‑two letters. Ezra T. Benson, joined the company of returning pioneers. On Tuesday, the company arrived at Fort Bridger and traded at the fort.
On Sunday, William Clayton and a few other members of the company pressed on ahead of the remainder of the company, hoping to reach the Sweet Water. As they reached South Pass, they were stopped by two Indians who made signs that a large party of Indians was nearby and they wished to trade. A large company of Shoeshone arrived and they traded in peace. On Monday, before starting out in the morning, they were greeted by “Father” Eldredge of the “Big Company” of pioneers. He announced that Daniel Spencer's 50 would be arriving soon. Soon the wagons began to roll into sight. William Clayton wrote: “I was glad to find Aaron and Loren Farr, and William Walker in this company with their families all well and in good spirits. From Sister Olivia, I received some articles sent by my family which were very acceptable indeed and made me feel grateful. This company all appear well and cheerful and are not much troubled on account of lack of teams.”
On Wednesday, they met Parley P. Pratt and another company of pioneers. Some of the returning pioneers, including Shadrach Roundy, found their families in the “Big Company” and decided to turn around and go with them to the valley instead of back to Winter Quarters. Eliza R. Snow wrote: “Had the pleasure of hearing from the Valley & tasting some salt from the great Lake of the Valley, by some of the soldiers & some of the pioneers with 3 wagons.”
On Thursday, the returning company met the Russell 50, Rich 50, and Wallace 50. They heard reports of many cattle that had been lost along the way. On Friday, they met the rest of the companies of 50s, with the Jedediah M. Grant 50 bringing up the rear, crippled because of so many lost oxen. William Clayton recorded: “Brother Grant had a child die last night and his wife is yet very sick and not much expected to recover. This company has lost many cattle and are so bad off for teams as not to be able to travel more than ten miles a day which would make it some day in October before they get through.” By Saturday, the returning “ox team” company was about seven miles away from Devil's Gate, on the Sweetwater.
On Friday, Brigham Young's company camped on the Big Sandy River, and were overjoyed to meet Daniel Spencer's hundred, part of the “Big Company” of pioneers heading to the valley. Isaac C. Haight wrote: “We felt to thank the Lord to see them again.” A meeting was held in the evening when the Saints were able to hear for the first time in many months, the preaching of Brigham Young. George A. Smith gave a graphic description of the Salt Lake Valley.
On Saturday, Brigham Young and the returning pioneers met more of the “Big Company” and were reunited with Apostle Parley P. Pratt. [John Taylor was many miles further to the east with the rear companies.] Patty Sessions recorded: “Here the pioneers come to us. It made our hearts glad to see them. They staid all night with us, eat and drank with us.”
In the afternoon a council meeting was held of the Twelve apostles. Brigham Young was displeased with the organization of the camp and reproved Elders Pratt sharply for undoing the organization that had been established at Winter Quarters, by revelation, before the pioneers left in the spring. Elder Pratt wrote: “In short, I was severely reproved and chastened. I no doubt deserved this chastisement; and I humbled myself, acknowledged my faults and errors, and asked forgiveness. I was frankly forgiven, and, bidding each other farewell, each company passed on their way. This school of experience made me more humble and careful in future, and I think it was the means of making me a wiser and better man ever after.” Wilford Woodruff observed: “Confession made & much teaching given by the President & the power of God rested upon us & our hearts melted & our eyes in tears. The President said if he did not tell us our faults we would be destroyed but if he told us of them & reproved us, we would live in love & our hearts be cemented together.”
In the evening, Brigham Young and Heber C. Kimball reviewed over the list of the “Big Company” of pioneers to select a High Council to be appointed after they arrived in Great Salt Lake City.
John Young and Nelson Higgins, part of the express company, arrived back in the valley on Tuesday, bringing news to the valley from the “Big Company” of pioneers. Letters were received and the Saints in the valley were excited to learn that hundreds of additional pioneers would soon be arriving.
Lyman Littlefield, on the way to his mission in England wrote on Sunday:
At four o'clock a.m., August 29, a woman died. Her body was wrapped in canvas, by and sailors, which was sewed up securely then carried to the small side door and place upon a plank with a bag of sand tied at her feet. The end of the plank was then lifted to a proper angle, and the weight of the sand drew her, feet foremost, into the “dark blue sea.” This was the first burial at sea I had ever witnessed. It was a melancholy spectacle to witness a human form thrown into the deep ocean where nothing can mark the place of interment! The sand was not of sufficient weight to sink her and, as we pursued our course, she was seen far behind amid the bounding waves.
William Clayton's Journal, 353‑58; Autobiography of Parley P. Pratt, 360; Bagley, ed., Pioneer Camp of the Saints, 279; Wilford Woodruff's Journal, 3:263‑66; Harwell, ed., Manuscript History of Brigham Young, 69; Smart, ed., Mormon Midwife, 97; Beecher, ed., The Personal Writings of Eliza Roxcy Snow, 198; Diary of Lorenzo Dow Young, Utah Historical Quarterly, 14:163; Isaac C. Haight Journal, 45; Lyman Littlefield Reminiscences (1888), p.198
The pioneer company had previously met Goodyear west of Fort Bridger, in July.
Above present‑day Sandy, Utah.
The “Big Company” of pioneers were at this time traveling in smaller groups of “fifty” spread over about fifty miles.
Near present‑day Pocatello Idaho.
Elder Benson and others left the Salt Lake Valley on horses, on August 2nd, to find the second company of pioneers, and bring back word from them. They found the company on August 16, 40 miles west of Fort Laramie.